النشر العلمي

  • The Effects of Seasons, Age of the Animal and Storage Time on Physical Properties of Camel’s Meat (Camelus Dromedarius)

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age of the
animal and storage time on the physical properties of camel’s meat in
autumn, summer and winter seasons. A total number of 135 meat
samples from camels ranged between 1-9 years age were chosen. The
samples were analysed for pH, water holding capacity, oxidative
rancidity and color determination. The ultimate pH and water holding
capacity showed a significant difference (p >0.05) in different seasons
and storage periods. The rancidity and color determination of meat
showed significant difference (p >0.05) in different seasons, different
storage period and different age of the animals. The study concluded:
those different seasons had a significant effect on the quality of
camel’s meat, due to its effect on pH and water holding capacity. Age
of the animals had a significant effect on water holding capacity,
rancidity and colour, but it had no significant effect on pH. The
storage period had a significant effect on the oxidative rancidity and
colour that affect the shelf life of meat.

published in Gezira Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences ISSN 9556-1728 Vol 8No 1

  • Extraction of Pectin from Tamarind Fruits (Tamarindus indica L.) and its Utilization in Jam Production

In the present work, pectin was extracted from tamarind fruit pulp and used for jam production. The pectin yield in one kg tamarind pulp was 3.7 grams. The average chemical composition of tamarind pulp was: 5.44 % protein, 2.44 % ash, 18.21 % moisture, 1.99 ± 0.8% fat, 13.05 ± 0.7% fiber and 55% available carbohydrates. The tamarind fruit pulp also contained appreciable amounts of minerals as follows: 134 (mg/100g) sodium, 74 (mg/100g) potassium and 88 (mg/100g) calcium. The chemical, microbiological and sensory quality characteristics of the extracted pectin jam (A) as well as commercial pectin jam (B) were also determined. (A) contained: 8.5 % total sugar, 5 % reducing sugar, 67 % total soluble solid, 36 mg/100g sodium, (60 mg/100g potassium, 80 mg/100g calcium and had a pH value of 3.3. On the other hand, (B) contained: 12 % total sugar, 1.3 % reducing sugar, 68 % total soluble solid, 44 (mg/100g) sodium, 43 (mg/100g)
potassium, 64 (mg/100g) calcium and had a pH value of 3.5±0.1. Microbiological analysis of (B) had shown high levels of yeast and mould, however, the counts of yeast and mould was highly reduced in (A). The sensory analysis indicated that all types of jams were accepted by panelists who generally preferred (B) than (A) due to its appealing colour and flavour.

published in Gezira j. of eng. & applied . sci. 5 (2) :76 – 91(2010)

  • Antimicrobial Activity of the Extracts of Pomegranate (Romman) Plant (Punica grantum L.)

Many plants were found to synthesize substances that are useful
to the maintenance of health in humans and animals. Romman,
pomegranate (Punica grantum) has been reported to have some
antimicrobial activity. The present study was aiming to investigate the
antifungal and antibacterial properties of the Romman fruit peel and
flower extracts. The radial growth and the dry weight methods were
used for fungi, while, the plate count and the inhibition zone methods
were used for bacteria. Both fruit peel and the flower were found to
contain high amounts of tannins. The study showed that the extracts
were effectively inhibited mycelial growth and dry weight of both
Aspergillus niger and Penicillium italicum. However, the effect was
only significant at the higher concentration. On the other hand, the
extracts of the fruit peel were highly effective against bacteria. It
inhibited growth of both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and
Gram- negative (E. coli) bacteria, although, the effect was more
pronounced on the Gram- negative bacteria.

published in Gezira Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences Vol7 No1

  • Effect of partial substitution of wheat flour with date powder on biscuit quality

In this study, date powder obtained from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruits was used at 5%
and 10% replacement levels of wheat flour for production of biscuits. The proximate chemical
composition was determined for jawa and gondella date fruit cultivars. The chemical analysis of
biscuit supplemented with date powder indicated that the contents of moisture and ash ranged
between 3.00+0.09% to 3.8+0.24% and 1.23+0.084% to 1.84+0.084%, respectively, while
protein, oil, crude fiber and carbohydrates contents were 10.7+0.084% to 11.9+0.09%,
16.00+0.73% to17.7+0.16%, 1.00+0.22% to 1.9+0.084% and 63.46+0.09% to 66.5+0.18%,
respectively. On the other hand, the content of sodium and potassium were within the range of
3.00 to 3.44 and 20 to 32.54 mg/100 g, respectively. The content of iron ranged between 2.00 to
4.70 mg/100 g. Microbial analysis revealed the presence of 5x 105 to 1.8 x 104 c.f.u/g total viable
count and all biscuit samples were free from moulds and yeasts. The sensory evaluation of the
different biscuit samples revealed that there were no significant differences between biscuit made
from the different blends of wheat flour and date powder. However, panelists gave higher scores
to the 5% date powder (Jawa) than the biscuit made from other blends.

published in Gezira Journal of Agricultural Science Vol9 No2

  • Effects of Some Essential Oils on Aspergillus flavus Growth and Aflatoxin Production

The present study aimed at investigating the effects of some essential oils on
inhibiting fungal growth of A. flavus and aflatoxin production. Clove oil was found as
the best among the six different oils tested against the radial growth at the
concentration of 0.05. mL/100ml. However the other oils were also significantly
better than the control except the Pumpkin oil. Different concentrations (0.00, 0.01,
0.03 and 0.05 ml/100ml) of only three of the oils were tested against the radial growth
of A. flavus. Clove and cumin oils were significantly effective than the control at all
these concentrations. Although Pumpkin oil was slightly more effective than the
control at its higher concentration (0.05) ml/100ml), but it was not effective at its
lower concentrations (0.01 and 0.03 ml/100ml). Clove oil was also the best in
suppressing mycelial growth at the concentration of 0.05 ml/100ml. However, the
other oils were also significantly better than the control, while, Pumpkin oil was noneffective.
Clove and Cumin oils were significantly better than the control at all
concentrations. Although Pumpkin oil was slightly better than the control at its higher
concentration (0.05 ml/100ml), it was not effective at its lower concentration (0.00,
0.01 and 0.03 ml/100ml). Spore germination was also affected by the oils tested.
Clove oil gave complete inhibition at its higher concentration followed by Cumin,
Rehan, Garlic and Desert date, while Pumpkin oil was the least one. Aflatoxin
production was highly affected by the essential oils tested. Clove and Cumin
exhibited a complete inhibition, followed by Rehan; Garlic and Desert date while
Pumpkin oil was non-effective.

published in Gezira j. of eng. & applied . sci. 5 (1) :62 – 70 (2010)

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