النشر العلمي

  • Assessment of genotype x environment interaction and stability of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed yield under rainfed and supplementary irrigation in central Sudan

Sesame knowledge of genotype x environment interaction (GEI) is advantageous in order to have a cultivar that gives consistently high yield in a broad range of environments and to increase the efficiency of breeding programs and selection of the best genotypes. Fifteen genotypes of sesame (Sesamum  indicum L.) were evaluated during 2011 and 2012 rainy seasons, at Wad Medani, Rahad (under supplementary irrigation) and Gedarif (under rainfed), to assess genotype x environment interaction and stability of seed yield. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was used in each location. The analysis of variance procedure revealed highly significant differences among the 15 sesame genotypes for seed yield over the eight environments. The mean squares of environment, genotype and genotype x environment interaction were highly significant for seed yield. Both statistical stability models, i. e. Eberhart and Russell (1966) as well as the Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) analysis, indicated that genotypes Elgezouli, Promo, Um Shagra and Kenana-2 were the most high yielding and stable genotypes and can be recommended for both rainfed and irrigated areas of central Sudan.

published in Journals Of University Of Gezira

  • Combining ability analysis for seed yield and its components in sesame

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) experiments, were carried out in central Sudan during the rainy season of 2009 at two locations (Abu Naama and Sinnar). The hybridization plan consisted of seven male and seven female parents giving 49 crosses following line x tester arrangement. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The crosses and their parents were sown on the 7th of July for all the experiments at both locations. The traits measured were days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule, capsule length, 1000-seed weight and seed yield. Analysis of variance revealed that genetic variability was highly significant for all the characters studied at both locations and across them. Combining ability analysis showed that additive gene effects were important for inheritance of days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of capsules/plant, number of seeds per capsule, capsule length, 1000-seed weight, days to maturity and seed yield, whereas non-additive gene effects were important for number of seeds/capsule, indicating that the inheritance of this trait is due to specific combining ability (SCA). Combining ability analysis showed that parents, L7, L5, T2, T5 and T6 were good combiners for high seed yield as well as for most of the other traits measured in this study. Assessment of SCA effects for seed yield at Abu-Namma revealed that hybrid T4 x L4 had a maximum positive SCA effect and a high per se performance followed by T2 x L2, T5 x L5 and T6 x L3, while at Sinnar T6 x L6 had the highest positive SCA effects followed by T6 xL3, T1 x L5 and T2 x L6. However T6 x L3, T1 x L5, T4 x L2 and T2 x L1 exhibited the highest SCA effects across sites. The present study suggested hybrids T6 x L3, T1 x L5 and T4 x L2 to be tested in multi-location trials for commercial utilization, while, parents L7, L5, T2 and T6 can be used in recurrent selection.

published in Gezira Journal of Agricultural Science

  • Genetic variability and interrelationships of grain yield and its components of irrigated rice in Gezira

Nineteen genotypes of irrigated rice were evaluated at the Gezira Research Station Farm, Wad Medani, Sudan, for two consecutive seasons (2004 and 2005) in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. This study was conducted to estimate the genotypic and phenotypic variability, broad sense heritability and traits correlation with grain yield. The highest genotypic coefficient of variation and genetic advance were recorded for plant height and number of panicles/m2, and the lowest for number of tillers/plant, days to 50% flowering, days to 50% maturity and panicle length, in both seasons. High heritability estimates (>80%) were recorded for plant height, days to 50% flowering, days to 50% maturity and 1000-grain weight. The highest estimate of heritability combined with the highest genetic advance as percentage of the mean was shown by plant height and 1000-grain weight, in both seasons. The high yielding genotypes were WITA5 (TOX 3255-82-1-3-2), IRI 3240-108-2-2-3(SAHEL.108)(FKR44) and TOX 3081-36-2-2-3-1. Their grain yields were 4.9, 4.9 and 4.6 t/ha, respectively. Grain yield/ha was significantly and negatively correlated with the percentage of unfilled grains/panicle, plant height and days to 50% flowering. How-ever, it was significantly and positively correlated with number of tillers/ plant, number of panicles/m2,number of filled grains/panicle and 1000-grain weight, in both seasons. Path coefficient analysis indicated that number of filled grains/panicle, 1000-grain weight and number of panicles / m2 were the most directly related traits to grain yield/ha.

published in Gezira Journal of Agricultural Science

  • Response of sugarcane ( Saccharum spp ) ratoons to N rate applied in a single or a split dose under Guneid Sugar Scheme conditions

 

Sugarcane in Sudan is grown in the central clay plain where the soils are

mostly Vertisols. These soils are generally low in nitrogen (0.03 to

0.045%) and organic matter (<1.0%). Therefore, nitrogenous fertilizers are

needed for sustainable production of sugarcane and other crops. It is

known that an increase of N fertilizer is associated with an increase of each

of the number of millable stalks, plant height, cane and sugar yields until

an optimum rate is reached beyond which each of the above parameters is

negatively affected (Dillewijn, 1952; Wiedenfeld, 1997). This is es

pecially

true for the quality parameters of the crop (Humbert, 1968). This was

confirmed by Rattey and Hogarth (2001) who reported that commercial

cane sugar was reduced as the rate of applied N increased. Urea (46% N) is the main N source for sugarcane an

d other crops in Sudan. Thus,

determining the optimum rates of urea is necessary because of its increased

price, high cost of transport, storage and application

published in Gezira Journal of Agricultural Science

  • 1 Tapping the Sudanese sorghum germplasm for drought tolerance Awad Elkarim A. Ahmed 1 , Abu Elhassan S. Ibrahim 2 and Ibrahim N. El zain 1

ABSTRACT

Two hundred and ten,

seventy four, twenty four and eleven genotypes of

sorghum were evaluated in 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004, respectively, under

full and partial irrigation at Gezira Research Farm, Wad Medani, Sudan.

The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block de

sign with

three replicates. The objectives of this study were to estimate the

variability and genotype

-

environment interaction. Significant differences

were detected among genotypes for the studied characters under both types

of irrigation in almost all se

asons. Stem borer damage was highly

significantly affected by watering regimes, however, partial irrigation

reduced stem borer damage. Genotypes PI 568329 and Yruasha had the

least leaf senescence scores while PI 569371 and Yruasha were the least

damaged b

y stem borer. Genotypes PI 563310 (5488 kg/ha) and PI 570851

(5452 kg/ha) outyielded the check varieties Yruasha (4596 kg/ha) and Wad

Ahmed (5434 kg/ha). The current study depicted that the variability

observed among the genotypes was maintained for most c

haracters under

both water regimes. Water stress reduced most of the studied characters but

increased number of tillers per plant, lodging and senescence which could

be used as selection indices.

published in Gezira Journal of Agricultural Science

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