النشر العلمي

  • Effect of X–ray on the fertility, fecundity and sterility of female Anopheles arabiensis mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) in Gezira State, Sudan

In Gezira State, Sudan, the use of the insecticides for control of agricultural insect pests and mosquitoes,
has led to environmental pollution, pest resurgence, pest resistance and appearance of secondary pests.
The aim of this work was to study effect of X–ray radiation on adults and larvae of Anopheles arabiensis
mosquitoes, specifically the reproductive periods and fecundity. Some larvae and adults of A. arabiensis
were irradiated with different doses of X-ray. The insects were then reared and the pre oviposition period,
daily number of eggs deposited, the oviposition period, the post oviposition period, the adult longevity
and the average number of eggs per female were recorded. The results revealed that, the average
fecundity was 110.34 and 93.2 (eggs per female) for A. arabiensis females mated with irradiated males at
their adult stage and at their larval stage, respectively. In the control group it was 29.1-147.3 eggs per
female. The average sterility was 75.59% and 41.17% for A. arabiensis females mated with irradiated
males at their adult stage and at their larval stage, while it was 2.35% and 0.10% in the control group,
respectively. This study recommends using X-ray techniques to control Anopheles mosquito's population
since it decreased the fecundity and induced sterility in males.

published in International Journal of Mosquito Research

  • The larvicidal activity of powders and aqueous - extracts different parts of four plant species fruits against Anopheles arabiensis Paton (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae from Wad Medani, Central Sudan

According to WHO, populations of Anopheles arabiensis Paton (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Gezira
state, central Sudan, produced strains showing resistance to a wide range of insecticides. Natural products
are substances or combinations of substances and elements found in nature, and used for the purpose of
maintaining or improving health, treating or preventing diseases and control of vectors. In the present
work, the larvicidal potentialies of four different local plants fruits were investigated using different
morphological parts (seeds, whole fruit, pericarp) and in the forms of powders or aqueous -extracts.
These plants were: orange (Citrus sinensis L.), Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), bitter apple (Citrullus
colocynthis Schrad). and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).The standard methods of WHO for rearing and
assesment of mosquitoes susceptibility were carefully followed. The results revealed that the LD50 for
bitter apple fruit powder was 144.2 mg/L, for pepper fruit 165.3 mg/, for orange seeds powder 255.9
mg/L, for pomegranate seeds powder 718.7 mg/L, for orange pericarp powder (980.7 mg/L and, lastly for
pomegranate pericarp powder was 1266.9 mg/L. The effects of the treatments on the larvae showed
significant differences in their persistence in water. Pepper fruit powder killed 50-80% within the first 3
days, whereas orange seeds powder killed 35-100% within the first 6 days. The bitter apple powder effect
persited for 2 days only (85 and 55% for days 1 and 2, respectively) and, then drastically declined (15
and 10% for days 3 and 4, respectively). More investigations are needed to isolate the active ingredients
of each powder and subject them to bioassay

published in International Journal of Mosquito Research

  • The Effect of Electric Shocks on the Larvae of Anopheles arabiensis Patton and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera, Culicidae)

This study was intended to determine the sterility and the lethal effects of electric shocks on Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Karkoug village was selected for sampling Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes (larvae). The collected larvae were immediately transferred to the University of Gezira, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, basic science laboratory, where the tests were run. The electric shocks were performed by using a current of 1, 2, and 3 amperes by using a power supply. The voltages used in each experiment were, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 volts. The duration of the electric shock was 2 minutes. These tests were repeated for three times. The results showed that, the raises of the electric current from 1, 2 to 3 amperes was associated with the decreases of LES 50 form 31.468, 26.488 and 27.357 volts, respectively on Anopheles larvae, while they were 29.04, 28.58, and 25.65 volts, on Culex larvae, following the same order. Culex larva was obviously more susceptible to the electric shocks than Anopheles. The electric shocks was also shortening the life span of the produced adults of both Culex and Anopheles. Also, the electric shocks induce a state of sterility on the subjected species.

published in Gezira Journal of Health Sciences

  • Population Density, Developmental Period and Fecundity of Anopheles Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) in Gezira State, Sudan

           In Gezira State, insecticides were used for many years for controlling mosquitoes and other agricultural pests. The objective of this work was to study the population density, the developmental periods the reproductive periods and the fecundity of Anopheles mosquitoes in Gezira State, Sudan. Ten of one-day old or less of the cultured adult males and females of A. pharoensis transferred separately to cage. The female pre-oviposition period, daily number of eggs deposited, the oviposition period, the post oviposition period, the adult longevity and the average number of eggs per female were recorded. The results revealed that, the number of A.arabiensis larvae collected from  the three was higher than that of A. pharoensis and A. funestus during the two seasons (2009 and 2010). The number of A. funestus adults collected at Wad Medani site during the two seasons was lowest than that collected from El Managel and El Hosh. The incubation period of the eggs, was relatively similar in all Anopheles species, as same as the larval period. The pupal period was relatively longer in A. funestus (2.4 days) and A. pharoensis (2.2 days) than in A.arabiensis (2 days). Adult A. pharoensis lived relatively longer (21 days) than A arabiensis and A. funestus (20 days). The total life cycle was relatively longer (32 days) in A. pharoensis than in A. arabiensis and A. funestus (30 days for each). Females of all species of Anopheles mosquito oviposited after one day from their emergence from the pupae and took also one day before they oviposit again. The oviposition period was significantly longer in A. arabiensis (3.3 days) than in A. pharoensis (2.5 days) and A. funestus (1.8 days). The oviposition rate was significantly higher in A. arabiensis (191) than in  A. pharoensis (150) and A. funestus (79). The fecundity of A. arabiensis (624 eggs/female) was significantly greater than that of A. pharoensis (391 eggs/female) and A. funestus (141 eggs/female). Such study should be run periodically for all sites in Gezira State and neighboring States.

published in Gezira Journal of Health Sciences

  • Effect of production systems on the performance of dairy cows in the Gezira State, Sudan

G. H.Elobied1  , A.A. Dafalla2,  Asma, A.Abdalla2.  Imtithal, M.Mohammed2,  Aziza D.Fadiel2 and  Isam A.Abdalla1.

1Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira,Wad Medani,Sudan.

2Minstry of Agricujture., Livestock and Natural Resources, Gezira, State,Sudan.

ABSTRACT

      This study was conducted in the Gezira State, Sudan, with the objectives of investigating and comparing the  effect of production  systems  on age  at first calving, calving interval, milk yield, herd structure, mortality and growth rate in traditional animal production and organized dairy farms. Six out of eight localities were included in the study. From each locality, 5 herds, each of traditional animal production and organized dairy farms were selected. This survey was carried out  using questionnaire involving 40 farmers (including the surveyed farms) from each locality. Means and standard deviations for each studied parameter were calculated using SPSS. The result revealed greater differences in the studied parameters between the two systems of production. Feed had a great influence on animal performance. It could be recommended that, for improving the traditional farm performance, efforts should be payed  to upgrade animal genetics through selection from highly producing local cows and introduction of foreign breeds. Feeding improvement in both terms of quality and quantity is also needed.

 

 

 

published in Gezira j. of agric. sci.

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