النشر العلمي

  • Phytotoxic Effects of Apple of Sodom (Calotropis procera W.T) Leaves Aqueous Extract on Seed Germination of some Poaceous Crops Using Probit Analysis

   Certain plants suppress development of other plants by releasing many chemical substances into the environment. This study was carried out to investigate the phytotoxic effects of the leaves aqueous extract of apple of Sodom [Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T.] on seed germination of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (sorghum), Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. (millet), Zea mays L. (corn) and Triticum vulgare L. (wheat) using probit analysis. The experiments were conducted at the University of Gezira in Sudan, in the 2014/15 agricultural season. Ten concentrations (2.11 to 21.05 g/l) were prepared from the stock solution (50 g / l). Sterilized-distilled water was used as control. The experiment, of each crop, was laid out in a completely randomized design and the treatments were replicated four times. The crop seeds were checked for germination and inhibition of germination in three days from the onset of germination. Data were subjected to probit analysis procedure (P £ 0.5). The result revealed that the leaves aqueous extract of apple of Sodom inhibited the seed germination of the tested cereal crops and there was direct positive relationship between concentration (g/l) and inhibition (%). Also, the result revealed that the LC50 for sorghum, millet, corn and wheat was 17.6, 17.0, 19.2 and 16.7 g/l, respectively. It was concluded that that the leaves aqueous extract of apple of Sodom had toxic effect to the seeds of the tested cereal crops.

published in Journal of King Faisal University (Basic and Applied Sciences), 21(1): 56-62.

  • Application of Probit Analysis in Studying the Allelopathy Phenomenon

   Probit analysis is a type of regression used to analyze the relationship between a stimulus and the quantal response. Allelopathy refers to direct or indirect negative or positive effects of one plant on another through the release of chemical compounds into the environment. This study was carried out to apply probit analysis in investigating the allelopathic effects of the leaves aqueous extracts of apple of Sodom [Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T.] on the inhibition of seed germination of African rattlebox (Crotalaria saltiana Andr.). A laboratory experiments were carried out at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira, Sudan in season 2014/15. Ten concentrations (2.3, 4.6, 7.0, 9.3, 11.6, 13.9, 16.2, 18.5, 20.8 and 23.2 g/l) leaves aqueous extract of apple of Sodom were prepared from the stock solution (50 g / l). A control with sterilized-distilled water was included for comparison. Treatments were arranged in completely randomized design with four replicates. The seeds were examined for inhibition in germination at three days after initial germination. Collected data were transformed using Abbott’s formula and subjected to probit analysis procedure (P £ 0.5). The results showed that the leaves aqueous extract of apple of Sadom had allelopathic effects on seed germination of African rattlebox and there was direct positive relationship between concentration (g/l) and inhibition (%). Also, the data indicated that plotting of corrected inhibition (%) against concentration (%) formed a sigmoid curve. Probit analysis transformed the sigmoid concentration-response curve to a straight line. Hence, the LC25 (2.16 g/l), LC50 (8.55 g/l) and LC75 (33.88 g/l) were accurately estimated. It was concluded that probit analysis is appropriate procedure to study the allelopathy phenomenon.

published in Iraqi Journal of Science, 61(6): 1265-1274.

  • Efficacy and Selectivity of Pendimethalin for Weed Control in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), Gezira State, Sudan

   Objective. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and selectivity of the herbicide pendimethalin on weed control in soybean at Gezira State, Sudan. Methods. A field experiment was carried out at Gezira Research Station Farm, Wad Medani, Sudan during summer season 2018/2019. The pendimethalin (Pendimight 500 EC®) was applied at three doses as pre-emergence treatment. The doses were 1.339, 1.785 and 2.232 Kg a.i./ha. Weeded and un-wedded treatments were included for comparison. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block designed with four replicates. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis and analysis of variance procedure (P ≤ 0.05). Significant means were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range test. Results. The results showed that all herbicide treatments were effective in weed control. They significantly reduced weed infestation compared to un-weeded control and significantly promoted the yield and various growth characters of soybean over un-weeded control treatment, except pendimethalin at the dose of 2.232 Kg a.i./ha which only reduced the plant population by 7% due to a phytotoxicity effect on soybean as compared to un-weeded control treatment. Application of pendimethalin at the dose 1.339 kg a.i./ha significantly controlled grasses and broad leaf weeds in soybean. It was also found superior in respect of various growth and yield attributes. Highest seed yield (1562.5 kg /ha) was recorded under pendimethalin treatment at a dose of 1.339 kg a.i./ha. Chemical analysis of soybean seeds showed that no residues of the tested herbicide were detected. Conclusions. It is concluded that the tested pre-emergence herbicide pendimethalin at the dose of 1.339 kg a.i./ha could be used effectively and safely in controlling weeds in soybean crop.

published in Agricultural Science and Practice, 7(1): 59-68.

  • Farmer’s Awareness to the Impact of Aquatic Weeds in some Minor Canals, Gezira Scheme, Sudan (2018)

Drastic growth of aquatic weeds makes such of water bodies unfit and take the shape of noxious aquatic vegetation in many countries around the world. In Sudan, many irrigation schemes have been greatly influenced by aquatic weeds such as Gezira Scheme. The objective of this study was to estimate farmer’s awareness to the impact of aquatic weeds and their management in the Gezira Scheme in 2018. The study area covered number of the farmers around the area of the six minor canals at Centre Group at Gezira Scheme; namely: Barakat I, Barakat II, Barakat III, El sonni, El ibrahim and Haj elnour. A simple questionnaire was well designed and conducted to determine the seasonal growth of aquatic weeds, control measures and the most preferable method/s of control for aquatic weeds. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data. The results indicated that most of the responders were aware of aquatic weed species with vernacular names (52 -100%), their problems (very agree) and some control methods (very agree). Also, 71% of them considered aquatic weeds are harmful and detrimental, but, they need to know more about the seasonal growth of aquatic weeds to assist them in their control. Where, most of the responders considered that all aquatic weed species are available in both winter and summer seasons. These results are useful in the management of aquatic weeds in minor canals of the Gezira Scheme.

published in International Journal of Academic and Applied Research, 4(4): 60-66.

  • Phytotoxic Effects of Thorn Apple (Datura stramonium L.) Seed Aqueous Extract on Seed Germination of some Cereal Crops Using Probit Analysis

      Solanaceae plants are strong allelopathic in nature as they produce and release many chemical compounds into the environment. This study was carried out to investigate the phytotoxic effects of the seeds aqueous extract of thorn apple (Datura stramonium L.) on seed germination of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench), millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.), maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum vulgare L.) using probit analysis. Laboratory experiments were carried out at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira, Sudan in season 2014/15. Ten concentrations (4.62, 9.26, 13.87, 18.51, 23.12, 27.74, 32.36, 36.98, 41.61 and 46.28 g/l) of the seeds aqueous extract of D. stramonium were prepared from the stock solution (100 g/l). A control with sterilized-distilled water was included for comparison. Treatments were arranged in completely randomized design with four replicates. The seeds were examined for inhibition (%) in germination at three days after initial germination. Data were transformed using Abbott’s formula and subjected to probit analysis (p £ 0.05). The results showed that the seeds aqueous extract of D. stramonium inhibited the seed germination of the tested cereal crops and there was direct positive relationship between concentration (g/l) and inhibition (%). The results also showed that the seeds of wheat (LC50 = 22.6 g/l) were most sensitive to the seeds aqueous extract of thorn apple followed by the seeds of sorghum (LC50 = 26.5 g/l) and maize (LC50 = 27.9 g/l). However, the extract was less toxic to the seeds of millet (LC50 = 32.2 g/l). It was concluded that that the aqueous extract of thorn apple (D. stramonium L.) was phytotoxic to the seed germination of the tested cereal crops.

published in International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, 4(1): 89-98.

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