النشر العلمي

  • Extraction of Pectin from Tamarind Fruits (Tamarindus indica L.) and its Utilization in Jam Production

Extraction of Pectin from Tamarind Fruits (Tamarindus indica L.) and its Utilization in Jam Production

Abdel Moneim E. Sulieman, Sulima M. Ibnouf, Kamal S. Hassan

 

Abstract

 

In the present work, pectin was extracted from tamarind fruit pulp and used for jam production. The pectin yield in one kg tamarind pulp was 3.7 grams. The average chemical composition of tamarind pulp was: 5.44 % protein, 2.44 % ash, 18.21 % moisture, 1.99 ± 0.8% fat, 13.05 ± 0.7% fiber and 55% available carbohydrates. The tamarind fruit pulp also contained appreciable amounts of minerals as follows: 134 (mg/100g) sodium, 74 (mg/100g) potassium and 88 (mg/100g) calcium. The chemical, microbiological and sensory quality characteristics of the extracted pectin jam (A) as well as commercial pectin jam (B) were also determined. (A) contained: 8.5 % total sugar, 5 % reducing sugar, 67 % total soluble solid, 36 mg/100g sodium, (60 mg/100g potassium, 80 mg/100g calcium and had a pH value of 3.3. On the other hand, (B) contained:  12 % total sugar, 1.3 % reducing sugar, 68 % total soluble solid, 44 (mg/100g) sodium, 43 (mg/100g) potassium, 64 (mg/100g) calcium and had a pH value of 3.5±0.1. Microbiological analysis of (B) had shown high levels of yeast and mould, however, the counts of yeast and mould was highly reduced in (A). The sensory analysis indicated that all types of jams were accepted by panelists who generally preferred (B) than (A) due to its appealing colour and flavour.

Key Words: Tamarind, Pectin, Jam Production

 

published in Gezira Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

  • Carbonation of Sugar Beet Juice in the Purification Process

Carbonation of Sugar Beet Juice in the Purification Process

Mohanad O. Bashari, Kamal Suleiman, Elamin A. Elkhalifa

 

Abstract

 

These experiments were conducted in Elgunied Sugar Research Center during crop season 2006-2007 to investigate two sugar beet varieties (Juvena and Valentina). Brix degrees of extracted juice of Juvena and Valentina varieties were 16.50% and 15.91%, respectively. On the other hand, the purity of the two varieties demonstrated 80.32 % and 81.09 %, respectively.

The amount of lime used in this test was 0.3 % in preliming and 2.5 % in main liming on sugar beet weight used. In this study three lime concentrations 4, 6 and 8 Baume were used. It was found that the best was 6 Baume concentration which gave 1.5 minutes for sedimentation rate in preliming and 17 minutes for main liming. When 8 Baume was used in preliming, the sedimentation occurred only after 3 hours.

The lower turbidity obtained was 4.93 when the CO2 gas volume of 41.50 cm3/500 ml juice in the 1st carbonation process and 26.45cm3/500 ml in the 2nd carbonation process was used for Juvena juice, but for Valentine juice the best gas volume used was 51.44 and 38.14 cm3/500 ml and resulted in a lower turbidity value which was 3.50. This was accompanied by colour reduction from 28246 IU in limed juice to 11500 and 11680 IU for Juvena and Valentina, respectively during the same stages of carbonation treatment.

The two samples of raw juice showed a low value of reducing sugars which was 0.013%, on the other hand the reducing sugars of clarified juice were higher and found to be 0.42%.

 

published in Gezira Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

  • Study of some factors affecting sugar colour at Elguneid sugar factory
  • Study of some factors affecting sugar colour at Elguneid sugar factory
  • Kamal Suleiman, H. Elnur K. Abu Sabah, Ghadeir M. Awad Elseed

 

  •                                                                                       Abstract

 

The objectives of this study are to investigate the parameters which affect colour formation and influence the sugar quality in addition to that is to find technical solution to improve commercial sugar colour.

All experiments of this research study were conducted in Elguneid Sugar Company by taking samples from different manufacturing stages during 2002–2003 production season.

The values for turbidity, colour, pH, purity, refractometric dry substances (RDS%), colour transfer factor, reducing sugars (RS%) and conductivity ash were studied. The results obtained were compared with the interna-tionally accepted standards. The reducing sugars were found to be 0.87%, where the international value represented 0.04%. This increase in RS% may be due to a drop in exhaust steam pressure, which leads to long boiling periods, and the result was sucrose inversion.

 

published in Gezira Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

  • Influence of Sugar Cane Mechanical Harvest on Clear Juice Quality At Elguneid Sugar Factory

Influence of Sugar Cane Mechanical Harvest on Clear Juice Quality At Elguneid Sugar Factory

Nahid S. Ahmed, Kamal S. Hassan, Elamin A. EIKhalifa

 

Abstract

 

This study aimed to investigate the influence of mechanical harvest on juice clarification in Elguneid sugar factory. Elguneid factory was designed to treat a hand cut cane more than a mechanical cut cane. So, the clarification system was tuned to meet this purpose. Color, turbidity, reducing sugar, sugar content, purity, pH, brix, temperature and phosphate content were determined. The results showed: the color has increased from 3910 to 13921 ICUMSA, turbidity from 3242 to 8496 and reducing sugar increased to 0.928%. Sucrose content decreased from 14.39 to 11.69% and purity from 88 to 83%. The results of Pol% and Purity% were taken at the beginning of crushing season, where the mechanical harvest was higher than hand cut. A comparative study between hand cut and mechanical harvest was made at the middle of the crushing season. The optimum brix in the clarifiers matched the turbidity decreased at brix 12%, 13% respectively. Also from the tests carried out it was shown that the flocculant and phosphoric acid, which were used by the factory personnel was lower than the standard values, phosphoric acid was 183ppm and the polymer was 1,6ppm. These low values affected the precipitation process. There is a relationship between the amount of mud and type of harvest. It was noticed that there is a relationship between sugar yield and type of harvest.

Keyword: Sugar Cane, Mechanical Harvest, Juice Quality, Elguneid.

 

published in Gezira Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

  • Sulieman M.S. Zobly, Fawzia E. Elbahsir and Khalid Yagoup "Selecting a Suitable Gamma Value for Bone Scan Image Enhancement using Gamma Correction Method

Abstract
Bone scan is one of the most important tests in nuclear medicine used to identify abnormalities in the bone. The bone image produced by gamma camera in nuclear medicine is very noisy image. Thus image enhancement is very important for accurate diagnosis. There are different methods used for image enhancement in this work we want to use a gamma correction method to enhance the image and then select a best gamma value, which is gives better image. The result shows that the best bone image enhanced with gamma correction methods when gamma value was 0.6 (λ = 0.6). The result was judged by expertise.

published in Red Sea University Journal of Basic and Applied Science,vol.2

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