النشر العلمي

  • Effects of X- Ray, Gamma Ray and UV Light on some Morphological Characteristics and Yield Components of the Second Generation Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)
Sorghum is considered as one of the most important crops in Sudan economically and nutritionally. The objective of this research was to study the effects of X-ray, Gamma-ray and UV light on some morphological and yield components of the second generation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). The first generation samples of sorghum seeds were brought from the Center of Biosciences and Biotechnology, University of Gezira. Some of the first generation sorghum seed samples were irradiated by two dose of X-rays (33.4 and 200.2 sec.), and two doses of gamma rays (200 CGY and 800 CGY), while the dose of ultra violet (UV) that used for general sterilization purposes against microorganisms was also used. The samples were planted in The Experimental Farm, University of Gezira. Vegetative growth parameters included, (plant weight, plant shoot length, number of fibrous roots/plant, number of leaves/plant, length of larger leaves, number of tillers/plant) and yield parameters included, (number. of heads/plant number of seeds/head and mean weight of seeds). The data were subjected to the appropriate statistical analysis. The results of this study revealed that, all treatments showed varying effects on all vegetative growth and yield parameters. There were some correlations (e.g. between number of roots and weight, number of roots and number of tillers, and also between plant weight and plant length). The F2 did not showed similarity to the F1 in most of the tested parameters. All irradiated groups, did not showed hypothetical high yield components (the production in the control (1643.02 kg\ha), LX (3299.45 kg\ha), HX (1086.54 kg\ha), LG (1108.76 kg\ha), HG (1917.54 kg\ha) and UV (1385.14 kg\ha). The research recommended further studies concerning the flour quality and resistance to diseases and pests in the irradiated sorghum.

published in EIJO: Journal of Bio- Technology, Food Technology, Agriculture and Innovative Research

  • Quality Parameters and Extraction Percentage of the Seed-oils of Groundnut, Sunflower and Sesame Samples Extracted by Different Solvents
Oils and fats are recognized as essential nutrients in both human and animal diets. They carriers fat soluble vitamins, and are present in varying amounts in many foods. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality parameters (physical and chemical properties) and extraction percentage of the seed-oils of Groundnut, Sunflower and Sesame samples extracted by using centrifugation method and different solvents (Chloroform, Hexane and Petroleum ether). Samples of Sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus), Groundnut seeds (Arachis hypogaea) and Sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) were brought from Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani, Gezira State, Sudan. Each of the seed samples were extracted using Centrifuge (model; 80-1, made in China). A commercial samples (controls) of oils was also brought from the local market. Some physical and chemical tests were run for the extracted oils in addition to controls samples. The results proved that, the percentage oil content was significantly affected by the solvent used. Petroleum ether solvent was the best solvent for extraction of oils, followed by Hexane solvent and lastly Chloroform solvent. The best solvent to be used to extract oil with good quality from Groundnut seeds, Sesame seeds and Sunflower seeds samples was Hexane solvent. The physical and chemical properties of oil extracted by using centrifuge and different solvents were statistically similar to their standards. The study recommends improving the centrifugation method to be applied at field (oil industries) and at Laboratory level (experimental work).

published in EIJO: Journal of Bio- Technology, Food Technology, Agriculture and Innovative Research

  • Study of Salmonellosis among Population of Abushouk Internal Displaced Persons Camp, Alfashir, North Darfur State, Sudan
Salmonellosis considered one of the most serious infectious disease threats to public health on a global scale. World-wide typhoid fever affects about 6 million people with more than 600,000 deaths a year. Community base cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among the population in Abushouk Internal Displaced Persons camp (IDPs) Alfashir North Darfur State-Sudan, aimed to study Salmonellosis among the study population. The sample size of (399) households were taken by using systematic random sampling; the data was collected using structured questionnaire, and observation check list. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. The study revealed that, the prevalence of Salmonellosis was (9%) among the study population. Most of the infected respondents (40%) attained primary school level and (60%) had low income in average of (300-400) SDG. Most of the infected respondents (60%) were male and (40%) were in the age group (5-18) years old. The study showed poor environmental condition of the households, where most of the respondents (75%) were using local latrines, and observed that they were discharging waste in an open space in front of the houses and no policy for vector control activities seen. The knowledge toward Salmonellosis was good most of the respondents(74.6%) aware about the mode of transmission, but the hygiene practice was poor majority of the respondents (49.8%) were not using water and soap for hand washing after visiting toilet. The study recommended raising awareness toward prevention and control of Salmonellosis. Rehabilitation of the latrines and encourage community participation to maintain good hygiene condition of the latrines. Additional research to be carried out on screening tests for the detection of Salmonella typhi for those who are living in the study area for further study of prevalence of Salmonellosis.

published in EIJO: Journal of Bio- Technology, Food Technology, Agriculture and Innovative Research

  • Phytochemical Screening of Calotropis procera Ait Flower Parts and their Larvicidal Potentialities Against Anopheles and Culex Larvae, Gezira State, Sudan

Mosquitoes (Anopheles and Culex), the vector of many diseases, are highly resistant to insecticides in many developing countries. It would be of great relevance to search for alternatives to control mosquito-borne diseases. This study aimed to run phytochemical screening for Calotropis procera Ait flower parts, thin layer chromatography (TLC) test, in addition to test their potentialities against Anopheles and Culex larvae. Fresh flowers of C. procera were collected from the gardens of the main campus, University of Gezira and were separated into four main parts: petals, corona, gynostigium and both styles and ovary. The dried plant materials were used to run the phytochemical, TLC and the toxicity tests, in the Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Gezira. Samples of Anopheles and Culex larvae were collected from the breeding sites of some villages near to Wad Medani City. The results showed that, petal and corona parts contain tannins, flavonioids, glycosides and steroids, while the other parts lack tannins and glycosides. Similar number of spots were detected using TLC test among flower parts, but with different Rf values. At 1.2 g/L, corona and gynostigium parts resulted in 90%-100% mortalities on Anopheles and on Culex larvae, while Ovary and style part showed low toxicity (10% - 30%). It was clear that, Culex larvae were relatively susceptible to C. procera flower parts more than Anopheles larvae. Similar studies should be run for all Sudanese aromatic and medicinal plants in order to establish local database.

published in International Journal of Biology Research

  • Larvicidal efficacy of ethanolic leaf extracts of four selected local plants from hail region, northern Saudi Arabia, against the dengue fever vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) Under laboratory condition

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of ethanolic leaf extracts from four selected local
plants, Citrullus colocynthis (bitter apple), Artemisia annua (sweet wormwood), Pergularia tomentosa
(Fattaka), and Rhanterium epapposum (Arfaj), from Hail region, northern Saudi Arabia, against the larval
stages of the Dengue fever vector, Aedes aegypti. Data analyses revealed that ethanolic extracts of both
R. epapposum and A. annua were more toxic to the 4th instar larvae of Ae. aegypti compared to the other
two plants. The lethal effect of the ethanolic extract of A. annua on the larvae was more effective with
time, as the mortality rate increased with spent time, with the highest mortality rate recorded, 95%, was
after 72 hours. Moreover, the study revealed that the ethanolic extract of A. annua showed more
larvicidal efficacy against Ae. aegypti larvae under lower concentrations compared to the other three
plants.

published in International Journal of Mosquito Research

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