النشر العلمي

  • Visual Sensor Placement Based on Risk Maps

The research work on camera placement has focused on maximizing the coverage or minimizing the installation cost of video surveillance systems. Typical placement schemes mount surveillance cameras with no emphasis on the coverage demand divergences, which impacts the system’s cost and efficiency. This paper addresses the camera placement problem based on an inverse modeling taxonomy. Thus, rather than performing the optimization on uniformly distributed grids, the paper introduces an underlying mechanism to elaborate the security sensitive zones prior to the coverage optimization. The outcome of the prioritization process is termed as Risk Maps. Obtained empirical results show the reliability of the placement using inverse modeling. Finally, the validation of the proposed placement scheme is carried out in a constraint environment.

published in IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

  • Interdisciplinary adoption of Antimicrobial Good Prescribing

Background:  Chronic  otitis media (COM) is a persistent inflammatory  disorder of the 
middle ear and mastoid cavity. Worldwide changes in the resistance to antimicrobials and 
distribution  of  organisms  causing  COM  have  been  detected.  In  Gezira  State,  Sudan; 
patients  are  usually  seen  by  ENT  specialist  after  venturing  with  antibiotics  empirically 
obtained over the counter from local pharmacies & primary health care. This study aimed 
to identify  doctors’ KAP on COM  management,  prevalence of  pathogens,  to determine 
their sensitivity towards commonly prescribed antibiotics  and to  formulate a  state treatment 
protocol  for  COM.  Methods:  A  multi-center  prospective  cross  sectional  study  was 
conducted  in public and  private ENT clinics.  Multi  management maps  were determined.
The  final  stage  involved  interventions  targeted  towards  improvement  of  management 
practices  which  involved  a  series  of  educational  presentations  and  group  discussions 
followed by a set of focus group discussions from which a standard management guideline 
was drafted.  Results:  The study included 217 COM patients most  of them  were males.
Study revealed that, cultures’  & sensitivity requests were not an adopted routine practice 
by  the  majority  of  doctors  (59%),  they  had  attributed  this  to  the  cost  &  other  reasons. 
Doctors reported  did not follow a standard management guideline for the management of 
COM  (58.8%) & demographic characteristics did not seem to have a statistically significant 
effect. The majority (60%) agreed on the positive value of treatment guidelines. The most 
common isolates were  Staphylococcus aureus  (42.6%),  Klebsiella  pneumoniae  (14.7%), 
and  others.  More  than  78%  of  isolates  were  resistant  to  at  least  four  commonly  used 
antibiotics.  Multiple drug resistance was prominent towards amoxyclav, cotrimoxazole, 
cefuroxime, cefaclor and ceftriaxone.  While, Ciprofloxacin and gentamicin appear to be 
the best choices for  empiric therapy.  In contrast, the use of  amoxyclav,  cotrimoxazole, 
cefuroxime, cefaclor and ceftriaxone should be discouraged. Conclusion: Patient pressure 
to prescribe or dispense antibiotics, a prevalent culture of self-medication, the lack of  a 
clear referral system or primary care within our health system and poor training in ENT 
both  at  the  undergraduate  and  post  graduate  levels  seem  to  be  common  challenges  to 
adequate  management  of  COM  as  perceived  by  ENT  doctors  in  Sudan.  

Public 
implication: Useful team working helps to rationalization of antimicrobial prescribing.

published in REact Annual conference

  • جامعه الجزيرة

Livestock is an important branch of econometric in Sudan. Sudan’s middle states have 30% of cows’ total in Sudan. Statistic plays an important role in knowledge of the difference between the hybrid and local (Kenana, Butana) cows. The main objectives of this study are to give an overview of post hoc multiple comparisons to discuss the difference between the hybrid and local cows on Calving Interval and Total Milk. Analysis of Variance and post hoc tests are better statistical techniques to study the difference between the hybrid and local cows. Secondary data source of 162 cows all of them had at least three calving collected from ElNishishiba Dairy Farm and ElBashair Dairy Farm are used. Firstly, preparing data to ANOVA and then post hoc tests. Secondly, the study’s results are that: the factors: farm, type of cow, parity and interaction between agegroup*parity have significant effect on Calving Interval. Agegroup, interaction between farm*type of cow, type*agegroup and type*parity have no significant effect on Calving Interval. The factors type, farm and type*age group have significant effect on Total Milk while the factors, age group, parity, type*farm, age group*parity and type*parity have non-significant effect on Total Milk. The study presented that LSD test is the best one to discuss the difference between local and hybrid cows on Calving Interval and Total milk. Scheffe test can be used for pairwise and non-pairwise comparisons. Bonferroni is best if there are few comparisons. The study shows that there are no differences between Kenana and Butana breed on Total Milk and Calving Interval. The hybrid 50% cow is differing from Kenana, Butana and hybrid 75% but it same with hybrid 62.5% and hybrid 87.5%, no difference between hybrid 62.5% and hybrid 87.5% on Calving Interval and Total milk. Also the study shows that there is no difference on two traits (Calving Interval and Total Milk) between parity one and parity four, parity one and parity six, parity two and parity three, parity two and parity five, parity three and parity four, parity four and parity five, parity five and parity eight, parity six and parity seven, parity six and parity eight, parity six and parity nine, parity seven and parity eight, parity seven and parity nine and parity eight and parity nine. otherwise there is differences between parities on two traits. This finding supports that to keep the contented of cow’s

herd to be between local cow and intermediate exotic blood 50% to 75%, also keep cow until parity

published in .

  • Effect of Powder Preparation of Clove, Ginger, Garad and Galangal on the Infestation of Sorghum Grains Caused by Khapra Beetle Larvae Trogoderma granarium

Sorghum is the most important cereal crops in the Sudan, used for both human and animal diet. Khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium) is the major storage pest of Sorghum grains. This study was conducted to reveal the efficacy of clove, Syzygium aromaticum, ginger zingiber officinale, Garad Acacia nilotica and galangal Alppina officinarum on Khapra beetle larva. The experiment was carried out in the laboratory to rear Khapra beetle larvae on Sorghum grains treated with powder of the above botanicals crops. Ten Khapra beetle larvae were added to each treatment. Five treatments replicated five times arranged in Complete Randomized Design. The treatments were consisted of sorghum treated with powder of clove, ginger, garad and galangal, and untreated sorghum grains taken as a control. Five parameters (weight losses of sorghum grain, Khapra beetle larvae mortality, adults emerged, seed germination and seed damage) were used to show the effect of these botanical crops on Khapra beetle larvae. Khapra beetle larvae mortality and weight losses were counted every week, adults counted after their emergency (after ten weeks), seed damage and seed viability were done at the end of the experiment. The result indicated that these botanical crops significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the damage level of Khapra beetle larvae on Sorghum grains. clove powder showed the lowest weight losses, highest mortality, highest seed germination, and lowest seed damage, followed by ginger, garad, galangal and untreated Sorghum grain. From this study we can conclude that clove crop is the most important crop to control Khapra beetle larvae

published in GPR2019/Global conference on Plant Science and Research

  • الاَثار القانونية للعقود الإلكترونية عبر الأنترنت - دراسة مقارنة

مستخلص:

 يسعى الباحث من خلال هذا البحث بالتحقيق والتأصيل لبيان الاَثار القانونية للعقود الإلكترونية عبر الأنترنت، (إلتزامات البائع بتسليم المبيع وإلتزمات المشترى)، وذلك من خلال المدوّنات الفقهية والقانون الوضعى ، حيث درس الباحث بالتحليل مفهوم العقد الإلكتروني، والعقد الإلكترونى هو ذلك العقد الذى يتكوّن وينفّذ عن طرق أو طريقة من طرق وسائل الاتصال عن بعد والتى هى ليست من العقود المسماة ، كذلك تناول الباحث الاَثار المترتبة على العقود الإلكتروني عبر الانترنت فيما يتعلّق بإلتزامات البائع بتسليم المبيع والتزامات المشتري بدفع الثمن، وسلك الباحث المنهج الاستقرائى التحليلى حيث توصل الباحث الى جملة من النتائج والتوصيات أهمّها، أنّ العقد الإكتروني من طبيعة العقود الرضائية ولايختلف عن العقد التقليدي إلاّ في الوسيلة التى يتم بها، وهي وسائل إلكترونية. ويوصى الباحث بالاهتمام والتعرّف على كتب الفقه الاسلامى ومعرفة النوازل وايجاد النظائر لها فى كتب الفقه الاسلامى القديمة ثم استخراج الأحكام بناءاً على ذلك .

Abstract

          Through this research the researcher endeavor to investigate , re-originate and clarify the legal effects for the electronic contracts via internet, (seller’s obligations to handover the goods and the purchaser obligations) through the legal and juristic and blogs, where the researcher studied analytically the concept of the electronic contract: electronic contract is the contract that consists and executed by the means or methods of further mass media (it is not from the named contracts, also the researcher cast light on the effects of the electronic contract via the internet regarding the sellers obligations to handover and the purchaser paying obligations. The researcher followed the inductive analytical method. The study comes up with many results, such as: electronic contract is from the nature of the satisfaction contracts, it is not differ from the classical contract otherwise the electronic tools which used to perform the contract. Depending on the above result the researcher recommends those juristic books and knowing episodes, in order to find its isotopes in Islamic juristic ancient books, then extracting the rules upon that

published in مجلة الجزيرة للعلوم الإقتصادية والإجتماعية المجلد (10) العدد (1) 2019م

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