النشر العلمي

  • The larvicidal activity of powders and aqueousextracts different parts of four plant species fruits against Anopheles arabiensis Paton (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae from Wad Medani, Central Sudan

According to WHO, populations of Anopheles arabiensis Paton (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Gezira state, central Sudan, produced strains showing resistance to a wide range of insecticides.
 Natural products are substances or combinations of substances and elements found in nature, and used for the purpose of maintaining or improving health, treating or preventing diseases and control of vectors. In the present work, the larvicidal potentialies of four different local plants fruits were investigated using different morphological parts (seeds, whole fruit, pericarp) and in the forms of powders or aqueous -extracts. These plants were: orange (Citrus sinensis L.), Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), bitter apple (Citrullus colocynthis Schrad). and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).The standard methods of WHO for rearing and assesment of mosquitoes susceptibility were carefully followed. The results revealed that the LD50 for bitter apple fruit powder was 144.2 mg/L, for pepper fruit 165.3 mg/, for orange seeds powder 255.9 mg/L, for pomegranate seeds powder 718.7 mg/L, for orange pericarp powder (980.7 mg/L and, lastly for pomegranate pericarp powder was 1266.9 mg/L. The effects of the treatments on the larvae showed significant differences in their persistence in water. Pepper fruit powder killed 50-80% within the first 3 days, whereas orange seeds powder killed 35-100% within the first 6 days. The bitter apple powder effect persited for 2 days only (85 and 55% for days 1 and 2, respectively) and, then drastically declined (15 and 10% for days 3 and 4, respectively). More investigations are needed to isolate the active ingredients of each powder and subject them to bioassay.
 

published in International Journal of Mosquito Research 2017; 4(6): 01-04

  • دراسات على حياتية دودة البطيخ/ الشمام Diaphania hyalinata(Lepidoptera:Pyralidae) والتفضيل العوائلي للحشرة علي القرعيات في الجزيرة، السودان

Melon worm Diaphania hyalinata consider as insect cucurbits pests. In spite importance of this insect but, it has not received adequate study. This study was conducted experimental farm of the University of Gezira in two  winter seasons, to determine level of damage leaves and fruits of six types of cucurbits namely snake cucumber, squash, pumpkin, sweet melon, water melon and tibish by melon worm and their population. The study revealed that leaves of snake cucumber were the most damaged by insect (24.92%), while leaves of pumpkin recorded the least damaged (9.16). On the other hand fruits of sweet melon showed the most damaged (46.6%) in second seasons, whereas fruits of tibish were the least damaged (4.5), while it did not show any damage of water melon. Snake cucumber found the most harbour of larvae and pumpkin was the least for it. The average duration of the developmental stages i.e. egg, larva and pupa were 2.5±0.25, 11.4±0.13 and 7±0.15 days, respectively. The fecundity and fertility were 90.4±7.60 and 73.6±3.63 per female, respectively. The whole life cycle was completed in 20-23 days with a mean of 21.37±0.22 when the insect feeds on snake cucumber. The six ratio was 1:0.8 male: female. The morphological of the different developmental stages was described. The results revealed effect food type on larval, pupal period and total life cycle. It was found that a clear impact on the life cycle when fed on leaves of snake cucumber, squash, pumpkin, sweet melon, water melon and tibish were 20.38, 20.84, 21.54, 21.42, 22.33 and 22.87 days respectively, compare when fed on fruits of the same cucurbits which were 23.25, 23.5, 23.6, 23.9, 24.5, and 24.25 days respectively. In study conducted in laboratory to determine which of the plants the most harbour and preference to female among the six types of cucurbits above, the degree of selectivity by female was assessed by obtained the mean number of eggs /4 plants, it was found that snake cucumber and sweet melon were the most preferred by female compare with other cucurbits. None of tested cultivars was immune.

published in المؤتمر العربي الثاني عشر لعلوم وقاية النبات (ACPP2017)

  • Water quality assessment

Although poor water quality is recognized as one of the greatest threats to human health, it has been little investigated in Sudan. In this paper water sources in Gezira state, Greater Wadmedani locality have been categorized to safe, probably safe, probably unsafe an unsafe sources using the newly introduced method of Compartmental Bag Test (CBT) for E. coli, which is usually transmitted through consumption of contaminated water and is possess a major health risk. CBT is simple, portable, self-contained and it can be done in a free-lab environment.  A total of 185 samples were collected from different water sources in Wad Medani, Sudan, including river, water treatment plant, borehole or tube well,  hand pump, public water tap, public water pots, household pot, public water cooler, public elevated water tank, household elevated water tank and  plastic water container. It was found that 74 % of investigated water sources either safe or possibly safe while the remaining 26% were either unsafe or probably unsafe water. Risk varied greatly with the nature of the source.  Those most likely to be contaminated were close to industrial points and factories or open sources exposed to pollution. Frequent and routine qualitative analysis is recommended to improve human health and hence the country’s development.

published in International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering

  • Water quality assessment

Although poor water quality is recognized as one of the greatest threats to human health, it has been little investigated in Sudan. In this paper water sources in Gezira state, Greater Wadmedani locality have been categorized to safe, probably safe, probably unsafe an unsafe sources using the newly introduced method of Compartmental Bag Test (CBT) for E. coli, which is usually transmitted through consumption of contaminated water and is possess a major health risk. CBT is simple, portable, self-contained and it can be done in a free-lab environment.  A total of 185 samples were collected from different water sources in Wad Medani, Sudan, including river, water treatment plant, borehole or tube well,  hand pump, public water tap, public water pots, household pot, public water cooler, public elevated water tank, household elevated water tank and  plastic water container. It was found that 74 % of investigated water sources either safe or possibly safe while the remaining 26% were either unsafe or probably unsafe water. Risk varied greatly with the nature of the source.  Those most likely to be contaminated were close to industrial points and factories or open sources exposed to pollution. Frequent and routine qualitative analysis is recommended to improve human health and hence the country’s development.

published in Water alternatives

  • Allelopathic Effects of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of some Poaceous Crops

   Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira, Sudan in season 2014/15 to study the allelopathic effects of aboveground parts of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) on seed germination and seedling growth of some poaceous crops. Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the allelopathic effects of aqueous extract of aboveground parts of sweet basil on seed germination of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench), millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.), maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum vulgare L.). Six concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%) of the aqueous extract of the aboveground parts of sweet basil were prepared from the stock solution (50 g / l). Treatments, for each crop, were arranged in completely randomized design with four replicates. The seeds were examined for germination at three days after initial germination. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the allelopathic effects of powder of aboveground parts of sweet basil on seedling growth of the same poaceous crops. The powder of aboveground parts was incorporated into the soil at rate of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% on w/w bases in pots. Treatments, for each crop, were arranged in completely randomized design with four replicates. The experiments were terminated at 30 days after sowing and the plant height, number of leaves and root length of crop seedlings were measured as well as plant fresh and dry weight. Data were collected and subjected to analysis of variance procedure. Means were separated for significance using Duncan`s Multiple Range Test at p £ 0.5. The results showed that the aqueous extract of aboveground parts of sweet basil significantly reduced seed germination of the tested poaceous crops and there was direct negative relationship between concentration seed germination. Also, the results showed that incorporating powder of aboveground parts into the soil significantly decreased plant height and root length of crop seedlings as well as seedling fresh and dry weight. In addition, the reduction in seedling growth was increased as the powder increased in the soil. Based on results supported by different studies, it was concluded that sweet basil has allelopathic affects on seed germination and seedling growth of the poaceous crops.

published in International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology

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