النشر العلمي

  • The Effect of Electric Shocks on the Larvae of Anopheles arabiensis Patton and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera, Culicidae).

This study was intended to determine the sterility and the lethal effects of electric shocks on Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

Karkoug village was selected for sampling Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes (larvae). The collected larvae were immediately transferred to the University of Gezira, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, basic science laboratory, where the tests were run.

The electric shocks were performed by using a current of 1, 2, and 3 amperes by using a power supply. The voltages used in each experiment were, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 volts. The duration of the electric shock was 2 minutes. These tests were repeated for three times.

The results showed that, the raises of the electric current from 1, 2 to 3 amperes was associated with the decreases of LES 50 form 31.468, 26.488 and 27.357 volts, respectively on Anopheles larvae, while they were 29.04, 28.58, and 25.65 volts, on Culex larvae, following the same order. Culex larva was obviously more susceptible to the electric shocks than Anopheles. The electric shocks was also shortening the life span of the produced adults of both Culex and Anopheles. Also, the electric shocks induce a state of sterility on the subjected species.

published in Gezira journal of Health Scinces June 2017 volume(1)

  • Population Density, Developmental Period and Fecundity of Anopheles Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) in Gezira State, Sudan

In Gezira State, insecticides were used for many years for controlling mosquitoes and other agricultural pests. The objective of this work was to study the population density, the developmental periods the reproductive periods and the fecundity of Anopheles mosquitoes in Gezira State, Sudan. Ten of one-day old or less of the cultured adult males and females of A. pharoensis transferred separately to cage. The female pre-oviposition period, daily number of eggs deposited, the oviposition period, the post oviposition period, the adult longevity and the average number of eggs per female were recorded. The results revealed that, the number of A.arabiensis larvae collected from  the three was higher than that of A. pharoensis and A. funestus during the two seasons (2009 and 2010). The number of A. funestus adults collected at Wad Medani site during the two seasons was lowest than that collected from El Managel and El Hosh. The incubation period of the eggs, was relatively similar in all Anopheles species, as same as the larval period. The pupal period was relatively longer in A. funestus (2.4 days) and A. pharoensis (2.2 days) than in A.arabiensis (2 days). Adult A. pharoensis lived relatively longer (21 days) than A arabiensis and A. funestus (20 days). The total life cycle was relatively longer (32 days) in A. pharoensis than in A. arabiensis and A. funestus (30 days for each). Females of all species of Anopheles mosquito oviposited after one day from their emergence from the pupae and took also one day before they oviposit again. The oviposition period was significantly longer in A. arabiensis (3.3 days) than in A. pharoensis (2.5 days) and A. funestus (1.8 days). The oviposition rate was significantly higher in A. arabiensis (191) than in  A. pharoensis (150) and A. funestus (79). The fecundity of A. arabiensis (624 eggs/female) was significantly greater than that of A. pharoensis (391 eggs/female) and A. funestus (141 eggs/female). Such study should be run periodically for all sites in Gezira State and neighboring States.

published in Gezira journal of Health Scinces June 2017 volume(1)

  • Phytochemical screening of Calotropis procera ait flower parts and their larvicidal potentialities against Anopheles and Culex Larvae, Gezira State, Sudan

Mosquitoes (Anopheles and Culex), the vector of many diseases, are highly resistant to insecticides in many developing countries. It would be of great relevance to search for alternatives to control mosquito-borne diseases. This study aimed to run phytochemical screening for Calotropis procera Ait flower parts, thin layer chromatography (TLC) test, in addition to test their potentialities against Anopheles and Culex larvae. Fresh flowers of C. procera were collected from the gardens of the main campus, University of Gezira and were separated into four main parts: petals, corona, gynostigium and both styles and ovary. The dried plant materials were used to run the phytochemical, TLC and the toxicity tests, in the Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Gezira. Samples of Anopheles and Culex larvae were collected from the breeding sites of some villages near to Wad Medani City. The results showed that, petal and corona parts contain tannins, flavonioids, glycosides and steroids, while the other parts lack tannins and glycosides. Similar number of spots were detected using TLC test among flower parts, but with different Rf values. At 1.2 g/L, corona and gynostigium parts resulted in 90%-100% mortalities on Anopheles and on Culex larvae, while Ovary and style part showed low toxicity (10% - 30%). It was clear that, Culex larvae were relatively susceptible to C. procera flower parts more than Anopheles larvae. Similar studies should be run for all Sudanese aromatic and medicinal plants in order to establish local database

published in International Journal of Biology Research

  • Effect of X–ray on the fertility, fecundity and sterility of female Anopheles arabiensis mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) in Gezira State, Sudan

In Sudan, notable progress had been achieved in recent years in the field of mosquito control through genetic manipulation techniques. The objective of this work was to study the effects of X– ray radiation on female Anopheles  arabiensis mosquitoes (the principal malaria vector) in Gezira State, Sudan. Some larvae and adults of A. arabiensis, were submitted for different doses of X-ray using, then the insects were reared and monitored of fecundity, fertility and sterility. The results revealed that, the average fecundity was obviously decreased whereas the sterility was increased in the A. arabiensis species. In the control group the fertility was 99-90%. The fertility of the A. arabiensis females was significantly higher (93-49%) than the other groups, and the lowest fertility recorded for the females irradiated with 5000 rays (9.82%). The fertility shown a positive correlation with the dose of irradiation. Thus 68.28% eggs hatched into larvae after a dose of 50 rays and only 1.42% eggs after 5000 rays. In the control group the fertility was 97.65%.  It can be concluded that, the use of X-ray on A. arabiensis resulted in clear and significant sterility in females, thus it will reduces the population density of this vector and thus contributed in control of malaria disease. X-ray techniques should be adopted to control Anopheles mosquito's population at field level since it highly affected the fecundity and sterility and also, it is obviously environmentally safe technique.

 

published in International Journal of Mosquito Research 2017; 4(3): 128-131

  • THE SAFETY OF USING IRRADIATED SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR),
Sorghum, the world’s fourth major cereal in terms of production, is a staple food crop of millions of poor in semi-arid tropics of the world. The objective of this study was to investigate the safety of using X- ray, Gamma ray and UV light treated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), by testing the renal and liver function parameters of Albino rats fed on the second generation yielded seeds. Original sample of sorghum seeds was brought from the local market, cleaned manually, divided into six groups and put in clean Petri dishes. Four groups were treated with low and high doses of X-ray and gamma ray, one group was treated with the UV light, while the last was the control. Fifteen Wister Albino rats were weighed and distributed randomly in six groups according to their irradiated sorghum feed. After 60 days, blood samples of the Albino rats were collected from the retrorbital sinus. The blood serum was separated using centrifuge. Renal function and liver function parameters were determined. The results showed that, the mutant sorghum seeds were safer to be used (no significant differences in renal and liver functions on the experimental Rats). Similar studies on other crops should be run.

published in International Journal of Current Advanced Research

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