النشر العلمي

  • Effects of Chlorpyrifos, Imidacloprid and neem seed powder on emergence of adults of the invasive fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera:Tephritidae)

Bactrocera invadens (Drew, Tsuruta and White) (Diptera:Tephritidae) is an invasive fruit fly species of Asian origin which was detected in twenty African countries. Now, the species is well established in several parts of the Sudan. The effects of Chlorpyrifos, Imidacloprid and neem seed powder on emergence of B. dorsalis adults were determined under laboratory condition. Third instars larvae were exposed to treated and untreated (control) sand.  Chlorpyrfos were tested at 2, 4,8,12,16 and 32 ppm, Imidacloprid at 2, 4, 8,16 and 32 ppm and neem seed powder at 312.5  (0.031%), 625 (0.063%),1250 (0.125%), 2500 (0.25%) and 5000 ppm (0.5%). Twenty mature third instars larvae were placed in petri dish (15 cm in diameter) to allow them to pupate in the treated and untreated sand. They were supplied with small pieces of mango fruit pulp to feed on. The experiment was replicated three times. Number of emerged adults was recorded after ten days and the mortality rate (%) was calculated. Observations on the effect of the tested chemicals on the pupae formation were taken. Data were analyzed using probit analysis. The three tested chemicals were found to be effective in inhibiting the emergence of adults but with varying degrees. The inhibition always increased with increasing the concentration of the chemicals. Chlorpyrifos was the most effective among the tested chemicals, with an LC50 of 4.13 ppm compared to Imidacloprid and neem seed powder which had an LC50 of 10.14ppm and 1299.63 ppm, respectively. Emergence of adults was completely inhibited at concentration of 32 ppm of Chlorpyrifos. Pupation was much affected by Chlorpyrifos  and Imidacloprid compared to neem seed powder.

published in مجلة العلوم الزراعية

  • تقييم اقتصادي للإستخدام الأمثل لموارد إنتاج القمح بمشروع الجزيرة

 

ABSTRACT

 

     The Gezira Scheme used to be the main contributor to wheat production in Sudan, but production was sharply declined during the last few years. The main objective of this study was to appraise resource use in wheat production in the Gezira Scheme in season (2014/15).  The techniques of descriptive analysis, multiple linear regression and Cobb -Douglas production function were employed in this paper as analytical tools. Results showed that 78% of variation in wheat yield was due to variations in resource use. Elasticity of labor and capital were 0.08 and 0.14, respectively. There are technical inefficiency and technological change problems and underutilized resources. It was concluded that farmers were not optimally utilizing resources and there is an ample scope for improvements in resource utilization. The study recommended cultivation of improved varieties and application of the different agricultural operations at the optimum timing to increase productivity.

published in جامعة الشهيد حمه الخضر

  • Effect of Powder Preparation of Clove, Ginger, Garad and Galangal on the Infestation of Sorghum Grains Caused by Khapra Beetle Larvae Trogoderma granarium

Sorghum is the most important cereal crops in the Sudan, used for both human and animal diet. Khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium) is the major storage pest of Sorghum grains. This study was conducted to reveal the efficacy of clove, Syzygium aromaticum, ginger zingiber officinale, Garad Acacia nilotica and galangal Alppina officinarum on Khapra beetle larva. The experiment was carried out in the laboratory to rear Khapra beetle larvae on Sorghum grains treated with powder of the above botanicals crops. Ten Khapra beetle larvae were added to each treatment. Five treatments replicated five times arranged in Complete Randomized Design. The treatments were consisted of sorghum treated with powder of clove, ginger, garad and galangal, and untreated sorghum grains taken as a control. Five parameters (weight losses of sorghum grain, Khapra beetle larvae mortality, adults emerged, seed germination and seed damage) were used to show the effect of these botanical crops on Khapra beetle larvae. Khapra beetle larvae mortality and weight losses were counted every week, adults counted after their emergency (after ten weeks), seed damage and seed viability were done at the end of the experiment. The result indicated that these botanical crops significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the damage level of Khapra beetle larvae on Sorghum grains. clove powder showed the lowest weight losses, highest mortality, highest seed germination, and lowest seed damage, followed by ginger, garad, galangal and untreated Sorghum grain. From this study we can conclude that clove crop is the most important crop to control Khapra beetle larvae

published in Conference &Expo of Agriculture &Horticulture

  • Identification and Determination of concentrations of some alkaloids in jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L.)

ABSTRACT

    Alkaloids are regarded as complex naturally occurring products of plants, and fungi. They possess nitrogen-containing heterocyclic rings, basic, and derived from amino acids. High physiological activity is also a characteristic of alkaloids. This study was aimed to determine the existence and concentrations of some toxic alkaloids in in different parts of jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L.) of the family Solanaceae. .Stems, leaves and fruits were dried, crushed and then underwent extraction. Solvents used in the extraction were chloroform and acetic acid . Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and GC-MS techniques were  also adopted in analyzing the alkaloids. The results revealed the presence of atropine, in stems, leaves and fruits of D. stramonium  with concentration of 0.03, 0.4 and 0.08 mg/g, respectively. Hyoscine was also found in stems, leaves and fruits with concentration  of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.2 mg/g respectively. Nicotine was  found in stems and fruits with concentrations of 0.001 and 0.02 mg/g, respectively. This study has opened new horizons to explore new natural poential pesticides from Sudanese indigenous plants and provide important information to avoid toxicity, harmful and adverse effects of these plants to both humans and animals.

 

published in جامعة جرش

  • دور الإرشاد الزراعي في رفع إنتاجية الذرة(المطري) عبر برنامج الحلول المتكاملة محلية جنوب الجزيرة – ولاية الجزيرة السودان.

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الخلاصة

 

هدفت هذه الدراسة إلي إبراز دور الارشاد الزراعي في رفع إنتاجية محصول الذرة الرفيعة في القطاع المطري بمحلية جنوب الجزيرة - بولاية الجزيرة – السودان عبر برنامج الحلول المتكاملة للموسم المطري ( 2014-2019)، كان مجتمع الدراسة كل مزارعي المحلية, وعينة البحث شملت جميع أفراد مجتمع البحث (125 مزارع )، تم جمع البيانات الأولية بواسطة الاستبيان وتم تحليلها عن طريق برنامج الحزمة الاحصائية للعلوم الإجتماعية  (SPSS) بإستخدام التكرارات والنسب المئوية ومربع كاي لأختيار الفروض، أوضحت الدراسة أن للإرشاد الزراعي دور فعال في رفع إنتاجية محصول الذرة الرفيعة خلال فترة تنفيذ البرنامج وذلك عبر دوره الرائد في نقل اتقانية العمليات الفلاحية الجديده التى تم تنفيذها , كما أوضحت أن هنالك علاقة معنوية بين زيادة الانتاج وإستخدام كل من التقاوى المحسنة والخلخال، والسماد, وعلاقة معنوية بين تاخر الزراعه وتذبذب الامطار مع تدنى الانتاجية  كما أوضحت الدراسة عدم وجود اى علاقة معنوية بين ذياده الإنتاج والصفات الشخصية للمزارعين. علية فقد اوصت الدراسة علي ذياده عدد المزارعين المتبنين للبرنامج حتى يستفيد اكبر عدد منهم من خلال رفع مستواهم المعيشي كما اوصت وزارة الزراعه بتسليهم التقاوى في زمن مبكرفي او قبل  (مايو) حتى يتمكنوا من الزراعه مبكرا . ومحاوله تنفيذ برنامج حصاد المياة حتى تحل مشكلة تذبذب الامطار للنمر الموجودة في مناطق بعيدة من الترع.

published in كلية الزراعة – جامعة جرش

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