- Investigation of anti -nociceptive activity of Zingabeel (Zingiber officinale) on acetic acid induced writhing in rats
This study was carried out to test for antinociceptive effect of the methanolic extract of ginger using acetic acid induced writhing in rats and compared to morphine and diclofenac sodium as standard drugs. The methanolic extract of ginger, showed dose dependent responses whereas 50 and 100mg/kg produced 100%protection against writhing induced by acetic acid (0.6 % i.p.) . This protection supersedes the effect of diclofenac sodium (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg). On the other hand morphine (2.5- 10 mg/kg) exhibited 100% protection against writhing induced by acetic acid.
Therefore we can conclude and recommend that, ginger is a potential source of new and effective anti-nociceptive agent(s). Bioassay guided fractionation for the methanolic extract of ginger should be investigated for the determination of active ingredient(s), and to elucidate their mechanism of action.
published in Gezira Journal of Health Sciences
- Synthesis and Characterization of Benzohydroxamic Acid
Hydroxamic acids are chemically interesting compounds which play an important role in number of medical and biological processes . Benzohydroxamic acid was synthesized by the action of hydroxamine on methyl benzoate; the reactions gave relatively pure product and good yields. The product was indentified and its structure was confirmed using comparative thin layer chromatography, melting point, and UV and RTIR spectro- photometry.
published in Omdurman Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
- In vitro effects of some inscticides om rumen fluid fermentation
A study to investigate the effects of different levels (0,5,10 and15 ppm) of three inscticides (endosulfan, phosalone and chlorpyifos) on rumen fermentation characteristics (rumen pH, ammonia, VFa and in vitro DM disappearance) was carried out in the laboratory of biology in the university of Gezira, Wad Medani , Sudan. the study indicated that, all levels of each inscticide significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the in vitro DM disappearance (IVDMD),the VFa and the total protozoal count and elevated the rumen fluid ammonia compared to the control. However the rumen pH was not affected. Also ithe study revealed that endosulfan significantly inhibited rumen protozoa and IVDMD than both phosalone and chlorpyififos.
published in Gezira J.agric sci 3(1) 80 - 89
- ANTICONVULSANT ACTIVITY AND MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE) ROSCOE) RHIZOMES
Purpose:Ginger (Zingiber officinaleRoscoe.) is used commonly in
treatment of many ailments. Ginger contains many biologically active
chemical compounds that are known to be important compounds for activation of vanilloid receptors (Vadim N et al. Br J Pharmacol 2002; 137:
793–798). These recently cloned vanilloid receptors and their agonists
were reported to be involved in several pathological conditions (Awad E
et al. Sudan JMS 2013; 8(4): 175–180; Calixto J et al. Pharmacology and
therapeutics 2005;106:179–208). The present study aimed to investigate
the potential anticonvulsant activity of ginger extract. Involvement of
gamma aminobutaric acid (GABA) and vanilloid receptors in ginger
mechanism of action as anticonvulsant were also investigated.
Method:Experimental animal models as maximum electroshock (MES)
and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizures were used to determine
the anticonvulsant activity of ginger. Picrotoxin (noncompetitive GABA
antagonist) and capsazepine (vanilloid receptor antagonist) were used to
determine the possible mediation of GABA and vanilloid receptors
respectively in the mechanism of action of ginger as anticonvulsant.
Results:Ginger extract (400 mg/kg) produced 100% seizure protection
in MES and PTZ induced seizure animal models. The ED100of ginger in the previous two models produced 20% seizure protection in picrotoxin
induced seizure animal model indicating possible partial involvement of
GABA receptors. Capsazepine produced 80% and 60% block to the anticonvulsant activity of ginger on the MES and PTZ seizure animal models
respectively, indicating possible involvement of vanilloid receptors.
Conclusion:Ginger represents a potential source for anticonvulsant
agents. GABA and vanilloid receptors have a role in the mechanism of
action of ginger as anticonvulsant. Vanilloid receptors mediation seems
to be a possible new mechanism of anti-epileptic drugs. Crude ginger
could be used as potential anticonvulsant agent and/or as co-drug in combination with antiepileptic drugs, especially if further investigations are
conducted clinically to explore its possible safety and efficacious use.
published in Epilepsia
- Investigation of Anti-nociceptive Activity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) A. Juss on Acetic Acid Induced Writhing in Rats
Background : plants represent the principal means of therapy in traditional medicine and the plant kingdom has long served as a prolific source of useful drug.
Objective: This study was undertaken to investigate the anti –nociceptive activity of Azdirachta indica A.juss leaf extract in experimental animals.
Methods: Three doses of methanolic extract of Azdirachta indica leaf (100,200, and 400 mg /kg) were administered intraperitnoeally (i.p.) to investigate their potential anti-nociceptive activity using acetic acid induced writhing in rats compared to morphine and diclofenac sodium as standard drugs .
Results: The methanolic extract of indica at a dose of 400mg/kg produced 72.01% protection against writhing induced by acetic acid. This result points to approximately equal protection exhibited by 25mg /kg diclofenac sodium Co- administration of indica (400mg/kg) and diclofenac (25mg/kg) produced 100% protection as diclofenac sodium (50mg/kg) and morphine (2.5 mg/kg).
Conclusion and recommendation: On the basis of results obtained, the use of indica leaf extract as antinociceptive seems to be promising, Bioassay guided fractionation of the methanolic extract of indica leaf is recommended for safety and efficacious use. Further work on determination of active ingredient (s) and mechanism of action is also needed.
published in Gezira Journal of Health Sciences