- - نبيل حامد حسن
- published on 9/1/2017
- DETERMINATION OF INSECTICIDE RESIDUES IN OKRA FRUIT WASH USING MOSQUITO LARVAE (Anopheles arabiensis Patton) AS BIO-INDICATOR
A study was conducted to determine insecticide residues in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L) fruits by using mosquito (Anopheles arabiensis Patton) larvae 3rd or early 4th instar as a bio-indicator a tool instead of high technology and costly analytical equipment. Mortality was evaluated by taking 10 larvae/replicate (3 replicates/ concentration) and each experiment was repeated thrice to obtain the Probit model used later in the field study to calculate the residues. The insecticide residues in tape water fruit wash of okra fruits collected from the field were investigated by using the mosquito larvae from day 1 to day 10 after insecticide application. The results were subjected to the equation of the regression line for each insecticide used, as the Probit model, to calculate the concentration of these insecticides in okra fruits collected from the sprayed field. The residues were measured from 250 g and 1 kg of fruits as mg/g okra fruit. Malathion and cypermethrin residues in the 0.25 kg batches and 1 kg batches were found below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 0.02mg/kg body weight and 0.05mg/kg body weight, respectively, while imidacloprid was above the ADI (0.06mg/kg body weight) in day 1 - day 6, but was equal to ADI in day 2 for the 0.25 kg batches, and below the ADI for the rest of the days. Regarding the 1 kg batches, the imidacloprid was found above the ADI in days 1, 2, 3, and 4, equal to the ADI in days 5 and 6, and below ADI in 7, 8, 9, and 10 days. Key words: Bioindicator, Cypermethrin, Imidacloprid, Insecticides, Malathion, Mosquito larvae, Okra, Residues
published in Agric Res J 54 (3) : 373-379, September 2017
- - نبيل حامد حسن
- published on 2/1/2018
- Development of Multiple and Cross-Resistance in Cotton Whitefly (Bemisia Tabaci Gennadius) Population in Gezira, Sudan
The effects of endosulfan, deltamethrin and chlorpyrifos on the control of whitefly and development of cross and multiple resistances was investigated in laboratory bioassay with five sprays in the field with three insecticides, the laboratory bioassay test was done to the survival from field spray, each insecticides whitefly population exposed to other two insecticide, the results reveal that the endosulfan population developed high level of cross and multiple resistance after 3rd and 4th to deltamethrin and chlorpyrifos, respectively. The results reveal that when endosulfan used to control whitefly the chemical can be alternate with deltamethrin up to second spray, because after the 3rd spray the RR increase to 10 fold that means the deltamethrin cannot be use after two sprays with endosulfan to control whitefly due the development of cross resistance. In case of chlorpyrifos same scenario will happen but after the 4th spray the RR increase to 10 fold means chlorpyrifos cannot be use after three sprays with endosulfan to control whitefly due to the development of multiple resistances.
Keywords – Whitefly Bemisia Tabaci, Cross Resistance, Multiple Resistance, Endosulfan, Deltamethrin, Chlorpyrifos, Resistance Ratio.
Cotton whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a key pest of many crops throughout subtropical and tropical regions of the world, causes also significant problems in protected agricultural systems in temperate regions (Naranjo, 2001). The impact of direct feeding and honeydew excreta that favors sooty mold production is factors that affect crop yield in both quantitative and qualitative terms (Oliveira et al., 2001). However, the most economically significant losses are due to virus transmission, especially in tomatoes (RobledoCamacho et al., 2009). Chemical management is costly and, at best, provides only partial control because of the rapid development of resistance, a worldwide problem (Cahill et al., 1996 a, b; Vinuela, 1998; Kumar et al., 2008). The cotton whitefly is one of the most important pests of cotton, okra, and other horticultural; ornamental crops. It causes damage by direct feeding and production of large quantities of honeydew, although it is now perhaps the most feared as a vector of up to 60 Gemini-viruses (Bedford et al.. 1992). Insecticide resistance has long been seen by many as the greatest threat to chemical means of controlling noxious organisms including insect-pests of agricultural crops. Some believe that chemical methods will be severely curtailed as a result of resistance. But under field situations most failures are caused by faulty equipment, insecticide of
- - نبيل حامد حسن
- published on 3/1/2018
- Cadmium Levels in the Urine of Males and Females from Different Age-groups in an Agricultural Village and Sugar-Producing Town in the Gezira State, Central Sudan
udy aimed to determine the levels of Cd in urine among adult males, females and children of both sexes ≤ 5 yr-old, in two Gezira State (Sudan) villages, viz. Rigwa (Um Al Goura Locality) and Wadelsayed (Eastern Gezira Locality). The selected age groups were 15 - 20, 25 - 35, 40 - 50 and 55 - 65 year old. Urine samples collected from these groups were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). A completely randomized design was adopted. Results revealed presence of Cd in urine with no exception. Cd levels in urine of females in Rigwa were 0.289, 0.113, 0.203, 0.283 and 0.199 mg/L for ≤ 5, 15 - 20, 25 - 35, 40 - 50 and 55 - 65 yr-old, respectively. The levels in males were 0.087, 0.069, 0.288, 0.274 and 0.288 mg/L, respectively, for the same age groups. Regarding Wadelsayed females, the levels were 0.014, 0.020, 0.015, 0.022 and 0.040 mg/L, respectively, following the same order as above. The means for males were 0.122, 0.129, 0.051, 0.089 and 0.099 mg/L for ≤ 5, 15 - 20, 25 - 35, 40 - 50 and 55 - 65 yr. old, respectively. The females level in Rigwa were higher than those of the males in the age groups < 5, 15 - 20 and 40 - 50 yr-old, whereas in Wadelsayed the levels in men were, in many cases, by far higher than those of the females. Also, the levels in Rigwa for both sexes were higher than those in Wadelsayed. The females < 5 in Rigwa shoed the heist concentration of Cd (0.289 vs. 0.087 mg/L), whereas those of Wadelsayed were 0.014 vs. 0.122 mg/Lm following the same order
published in EC pharmacology and Toxicology 6.3:120-127:
- Azhari Siddeeg Abdelwahab Ahmed - ازهري صديق عبد الوهاب احمد
- published on 3/29/2018
- Effect of Sunflower Meal Protein Isolate (SMPI) Addition on Wheat Bread Quality
published in Journal of Academia and Industrial Research
- Bakri Yousif Mohammed Nour - بكري يوسف محمد نور
- published on 4/11/2018
- Performance of Rapid Diagnostic Test for Malaria Diagnosis at the Different Specialized Hospitals in Wad Medani, Gezira State, Sudan
Performance of Rapid Diagnostic Test for Malaria Diagnosis at the Different Specialized Hospitals in Wad Medani, Gezira State, Sudan
Blue Nile National Institute for Communicable Diseases. University of Gezira , Wad Medani, Sudan
Bakri Y. M. Nour, Magid A. A. Almobark, Albadawi A. Talha, Elgaili M. Elgaili, Dafallah Abuidris, Ali B. Habour, Kamal Osman, Yassir M. Elhassan and Ahmed Bolad
Background: Malaria may be overestimated if the diagnosis is based solely on clinical signs. Therefore, laboratory confirmation is essential. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have become an essential tool in malaria control and management programmes in the world. RDTs can offer a good alternative with the advantage that it is an easy and rapid method, and may assist in diagnosis and improving the practices prescription. This study aims to evaluate the performance of RDTs for malaria diagnosis.
Methods: In Wad Medani, Central Sudan. 931 patients with symptoms of malaria attended the outpatient clinics at the different specialized hospitals were enrolled in this study, RDT and blood smears methods were performed to diagnose Plasmodium falciparum malaria and blood drop spot were collected in filter paper for nested PCR technique as a confirmative diagnostic tool.
Results: This study revealed that, 131/931 (14.1%) and 63/931(6.7%) were positive when performed by microscopy and RDT respectively. While the result of the 131 microscopy positive samples showed that 63/131(47.3%) were positive by RDT and 68/131(52.7%) were negative. The 68 samples subjected to nested PCR, 6 samples gave an insufficient amount of DNA after extraction while all the 62 samples confirmed that they were infected with P. falciparum malaria, indicating that there is a significant difference between the rates of malaria cases diagnosed by microscopy and RDT (P = 0.001(
Conclusion: This study concluded that the implementation of malaria RDT as a diagnostic tool could not be an alternative method, and it does not replace malaria microscopy.