النشر العلمي

  • Screening and Evaluation of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicumL.) Genotypes for Tolerance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) Disease under Field Condition

Abstract Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) disease is transmitted by the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) is one of the most serious diseases of tomato in the Sudan.The disease incidence can reach 100% resulting in total loss of the yield. Thirty tomato genotypes from different sources were tested for tolerance to this disease and evaluated for some plant and yield traits included plant height, number of primary branches, days to 50%flowering, number of flowers per inflorescence, number of fruits per cluster, fruit set, fruit weight, fruit shape and fruit firmness. The experiments were conducted during three seasons included summer (2006), winter (2006/2007) and summer (2007) at El Hudeiba Research Station, Agricultural research Corporation - Sudan. Two breeding lines named Multichiltylc-95-Jo-C2 and Pimpertylc-J-13 were selected as tolerant to TYLCV disease during winter and summer seasons whereas the other lines were found tolerant to this disease during the winter season and susceptible in the summer. Although, Multichiltylc-95-Jo-C2 and Pimpertylc-J-13 showed tolerant to the disease they did not set any fruit during the summer season.

published in University of Bakht Alruda Scientific Journal Issue No. 22 December 2017

  • Sugar Industry as a Source of Pollution: A Case Study, Elgenaid Sugar Factory, Gezira State, Sudan

Pollution is a major national and world problem. Industries, including sugar industry, represent one of the pollution causes. This
study aims to evaluate the extent of pollution in waste-water (WW), plants, and soil caused by the sugar industry in Elgenaid area,
Gezira State, central Sudan. Completely randomized design was adopted. Samples were collected from the factory WW, trees, and soil
from the area of study and compared with other areas far from the factory within the state. The WW samples were analyzed using
titration methods to determine levels of sulfide, as well as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD).
Moreover, all samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) to determine concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cd,
and Cu. The results showed that the sulfides concentration was ranging from 1.36 - 2.90 mg/L (average 2.21 mg/L), i.e. within the
permissible limits. The COD was between 1,600 - 5,330 mg/L (av. 4,073 mg/L), while the BOD was between 870 and 2,730 mg/L (
av. 2,096 mg/L), i.e. both were higher than allowed concentrations (50 mg/L for COD, and 35 mg/L for BOD). All samples collected
didn’t show detectable levels of Pb, Cu and Cd. However, Zn appeared in all samples; its concentrations ranged from 0.1359 - 0.6375
mg/L in WW samples (av. of 0.367mg/L), from 0.088 - 1.043 mg/L in trees samples (av. 0.399mg/L), and from 0.045 - 0.352 mg/L in
the soil samples (average of 0.115 mg/L). These values are high according to the National Environment Quality Standard of Pakistan.

published in EC PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY

  • Effect of basil (Ocimum basilicum) Leaves Powder and Ethanolic-Extract on the 3rd Larval Instar of Anopheles arabiensis (Patton, 1905) (Culicidae: Diptera)

Malaria is transmitted by Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae), and the disease is a significant health problem in the Sudan, affecting 52% of outpatients and accounting for 9% of all hospital deaths. A cross-sectional study was conducted by collecting first to third instar larvae from Barakat area of Wad Medani town, Gezira State, Central Sudan. The third instar (L3) was used for the bioassay. Susceptibility to Basil (Ocimum basilicum), which is an abundant weed during the rainy-season, as a leaf powder, leaves ethanolic –extracts and the standard organophosphate larvicide temephos were investigated. Five concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 g/L) of the powder, and 1,2,…,5 mg/L of the extract were tested in a 1L beakers. Ten L3 larvae/beaker were exposed for 24 hr to each of these concentrations. Each concentration was replicated 3X, and the experiment was repeated twice for verification. The results showed that the extract LC50 was 58mg/L and LC90 was 143 mg/L; the slope of log-dose-probability line was 3.04. For the powder, the respective values were 9.19 g/L, 19.88 g/L and 3.82. The temephos resulted in 0.033 mg/L, 0.16 mg/L and 1.85, respectively. It can be concluded that using this natural, botanical extract and its leaf powder are effective, safe, economic and environmentally-sound in controlling the aquatic stages. It can be easily prepared and applied by villagers and others.

published in International Journal of Mosquito Research

  • DETERMINATION OF INSECTICIDE RESIDUES IN OKRA FRUIT WASH USING MOSQUITO LARVAE (Anopheles arabiensis Patton) AS BIO-INDICATOR

A study was conducted to determine insecticide residues in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L) fruits by using
mosquito (Anopheles arabiensis Patton) larvae 3rd or early 4th instar as a bio-indicator a tool instead of high
technology and costly analytical equipment. Mortality was evaluated by taking 10 larvae/replicate (3 replicates/
concentration) and each experiment was repeated thrice to obtain the Probit model used later in the field study
to calculate the residues. The insecticide residues in tape water fruit wash of okra fruits collected from the field
were investigated by using the mosquito larvae from day 1 to day 10 after insecticide application. The results
were subjected to the equation of the regression line for each insecticide used, as the Probit model, to calculate
the concentration of these insecticides in okra fruits collected from the sprayed field. The residues were measured
from 250 g and 1 kg of fruits as mg/g okra fruit. Malathion and cypermethrin residues in the 0.25 kg batches
and 1 kg batches were found below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 0.02mg/kg body weight and 0.05mg/kg
body weight, respectively, while imidacloprid was above the ADI (0.06mg/kg body weight) in day 1 - day 6, but
was equal to ADI in day 2 for the 0.25 kg batches, and below the ADI for the rest of the days. Regarding the 1 kg
batches, the imidacloprid was found above the ADI in days 1, 2, 3, and 4, equal to the ADI in days 5 and 6, and
below ADI in 7, 8, 9, and 10 days.

published in Agric Res J

  • Insecticides susceptibility status in Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ghebeish locality, West Kordofan state, Sudan

Resistance to insecticides is a limiting factor in the use of insecticides in controlling mosquitoes. This cross-sectional study aimed to monitor insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) adults to four commonly used insecticides for indoor residual spraying (deltamethrin 0.05%, bendiocarb 0.1%, DDT 4% and fenitrothion 1%), following WHO protocols. This is one of a series of studies aiming at mapping the resistance of this vector in the Sudan. Two areas (urban and rural) in Ghebeish locality were selected to represent West Kordofan State during the period, July – October 2014. A total of 1,200 females were tested as non-blood-fed using the diagnostic concentrations of the insecticides. The results revealed that the adults were susceptible to bendiocarb 0.1% and fenitrothion 1% in both areas, with mortality rate 100% for bendiocarb, and 100% in rural Ghebeish and 98% in urban Ghebeish for fenitrothion. The adults were also found to be resistant to deltamethrin 0.05% in urban Ghebeish and rural Ghebeish, with 77 and 84% mortalities, respectively. With regard to DDT 4% in the rural Ghebeish 68%mortality was registered, i.e. resistant, and 96% (tolerant) in urban Ghebeish. DDT was not used in the Sudan since 1996.

published in International Journal of Mosquito Research

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