النشر العلمي

  • Ethanolic extract of okra has a potential gastroprotective effect on acute gastric lesions in Sprague Dawley rats

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) has various bioactive components used for the treatment of different diseases such as gastritis and ulcers. This research aims to examine the anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer attributes of okra extract against gastric lesions. Adult Sprague Dawley male albino rats were divided into five groups. The negative control (G1) received normal feed, positive control (G2) received ulcer-inducing drug aspirin 150 mg/kg of body weight (b.w), G3 group received reference drug omeprazole 20 mg/kg of b.w, G4 group received okra extract 250 mg/kg of b.w, and G5 group received 500 mg/kg of b.w. Acute gastric damage was induced in G1, G2, G3, and G4 using aspirin 150 mg/kg of b.w, during 14-day-long efficacy trials after that all the animals were sacrificed. Anti-ulcer parameters and histopathological analysis of stomachs were performed to evaluate the degree of recovery against tissue damage by the administration of okra extract. The obtained results indicated that the 500 mg/kg of b.w okra extract exerted a protective effect in aspirin-induced gastric ulcers by significantly (p < .05) reducing ulcer score, ulcer area, total acidity, and gastric volume, and significantly (p < .05) increasing gastric pH. Moreover, histopathological observation revealed that gastric mucosa was normal in G1, G3, G4, and G5; however, disruptions in the gastric epithelium were observed in G2. Congestion was observed in all groups except G1 and G5. Gastric pits and gastric glands were increased in size in G2 and G4. A higher concentration of okra extract (500 mg/kg of b.w) showed almost similar results when compared to the reference drug omeprazole. 

published in Journal of Food Science and Nutrition

  • Evaluation of the Efficiency of N-terminal Pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide for Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction

Background: Cardiac diseases are one of the major causes of death worldwide with
increasing incidence rate per year, particularly in developing countries such as Sudan
owing to urbanization and changing lifestyle. Myocardial infarction is a consequence of
the imbalance between the heart blood supply and the required heart cell; this disorder
leads to necrosis of myocardium and may cause death. It could be diagnosed by at least
two of the following criteria: chest pain, electrocardiography (ECG) elevation, and levels
on cardiac biomarkers. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of N-terminal pro-
B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction
(AMI).
Methods: This analytical case–control hospital-based study was conducted on total
of 70 individuals, of which 40 participants were suspected of or diagnosed with
AMI,while30 healthy subjects were included as a control group. Three ml of venous
blood were collected in lithium heparin containers. Troponin I (TnI) as a cardiac
biomarker was measured by TOSOH AIA-360,while theNTproBNP level was detected
using I-Chroma II. Personal and clinical data were collected directly from each
participant usinga predesigned questionnaire.
Results: A significant increase in the TnI level (mean: 13.13 ± 18.9ng/ml) and NTproBNP
(mean: 5756.5 ± 8378.2pg/mL) in AMI patients were detected when compared with
control mean (0.02 ± 0.00ng/ml and 57.8 ± 42.32pg/mL, respectively).
Conclusions: NTproBNP gave a high sensitivity (87.5%), specificity (100%), positive
predictive value (100%), and negative predictive value (85.7%) in the diagnosis of AMI
when compared with another cardiac biomarker such as TnI.

published in Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences

  • Cytological and molecular screening of in Chlamydia trachomatis infertile women attending a maternity teaching hospital in Gezira State, Sudan: a cross-sectional study

Abstract

Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is a sexually transmitted pathogen that threatens reproductive health worldwide. This study aims to screen CT urogenital infection using cytology and molecular methods in women suffering infertility.
Methods: In total, 415 women suffering infertility, attending Wad Madani Maternity Hospital were included in this study and then classified into two groups: primary infertile women and secondary infertile women. Both urine (n= 415) and vaginal swab samples (n= 130) were collected and tested using Giemsa stain and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for detection of CT.
Results: CT was detected in 33.7% (140/415) of urine samples and 73.1% (95/130) of vaginal swab samples using Giemsa stain, compared with 44.6% (185/415) and 84.6% (110/130) using PCR, respectively. In the primary infertile group (n= 265), chlamydia was detected in 35.8% (95/265) of urine and 75% (60/80) of swab samples by Giemsa stain compared with 50.9% (135/265) and 75% (60/80) of the samples by PCR. In the secondary infertile group (n= 150), chlamydia was detected in 30% (45/150) of urine and 70% (35/50) of swab samples by Giemsa stain compared with 33.3% (50/150) and 100% (50/50) of the samples by PCR. The associated risk factors were age, lower abdominal pain, and urethritis (p< 0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of Giemsa stain in detecting chlamydia compared to PCR were 86.4%, 100%, 100%, and 83.6%, respectively.
Conclusions: Giemsa stain can be used as a screening test for detection of urogenital chlamydia in urine and vaginal samples in places where PCR is difficult to be performed.

published in f1000research

  • Intrinsic stimuli‐responsive nanocarriers for smart drug delivery of antibacterial agents—An in‐depth review of the last two decades

Antibiotic resistance due to suboptimal targeting and inconsistent antibiotic release at bacterial infection sites has driven the formulation of stimuli‐responsive nanocarriers for antibacterial therapy. Unlike conventional nanocarriers, stimuli‐responsive nanocarriers have the ability to specifically enhance targeting and drug release profiles. There has been a significant escalation in the design and development of novel nanomaterials worldwide; in particular, intrinsic stimuli‐responsive antibiotic nanocarriers, due to their enhanced activity, improved targeted delivery, and superior potential for bacterial penetration and eradication. Herein, we provide an extensive and critical review of pH‐, enzyme‐, redox‐, and ionic microenvironment‐responsive nanocarriers that have been reported in literature to date, with an emphasis on the mechanisms of drug release, the nanomaterials used, the nanosystems constructed and the antibacterial efficacy of the nanocarriers. The review also highlights further avenues of research for optimizing their potential and commercialization. This review confirms the potential of intrinsic stimuli‐responsive nanocarriers for enhanced drug delivery and antibacterial killing.

published in Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews-Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology

  • Novel fatty acid-based pH-responsive nanostructured lipid carriers for enhancing antibacterial delivery

The present study is aimed at the employment of novel fatty acid derived lipids for the preparation of pH-responsive nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for vancomycin (VCM) intravenous delivery against resistant and sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Two branched lipids [stearic ‏acid derived solid lipid and oleic acid derived liquid lipid‏] were synthesized, characterized and used to fabricate NLCs by hot homogenization technique. Particle size, ‏polydispersity index, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency were 225.2 ± 9.1 nm, 0.258 ± 0.02, −9.2 ± 2.7 mV and 88.7 ± 13.12%, respectively. An understanding of drug encapsulation efficiencies and formation of the NLCs were supported by in silico studies. In vitro antibacterial activity revealed ‏that‏ VCM loaded-NLCs had higher activity against methicillin-susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus than the bare VCM. Cell viability study showed that NLCs had 2.5-fold better killing percentage than the bare drug at similar concentrations. Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy of VCM loaded-NLCs was assessed in a mouse model of MRSA skin infection. MRSA CFU load of the skin treated with NLCs was 37-fold lower than bare VCM (p < 0.05). This novel pH-responsive NLCs may, therefore, show potential for efficient and enhanced antibiotic delivery.vv

published in Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology

© 2016 University Of Gezira. All rights reserved | Design by Informatics Administration