النشر العلمي

  • Monitoring susceptibility of Anopheles arabiensis Patton, 1905 (Diptera: Culicidae) to the recommended insecticides in Gedarif state, Sudan Nabil HH. Bashir, Yasmeen AA Adam and Bakri YM Nour

Gedarif state (eastern Sudan) is one of the endemic areas of malaria. The present study aims to monitor and determine the susceptibility of the adult malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton, 1905 (Diptera: Culicidae) in two administrative localities in the state, following WHO standard protocols. These were Alfau (far west) and Alfashagha (Far East). The carbamate bendiocarb (1%), the organochlorine DDT (4%), and the two pyrethroids, viz. deltamethrin (0.05%) and permethrin (0.75%) were tested. The mortality results for Alfau and Alfashagha populations were as follows: bendiocarb 100% in both localities (susceptible); permethrin 95 and 96% (tolerant), deltamethrin 99 and 98% (susceptible), and DDT 76 and79% (resistant). DDT populations are still resistant, even though DDT was not introduced to the Sudan since 1996. This can be attributed to the intensive and extensive use of the pyrethroids and endosulfan. The cross-resistance is expected as a result of the shared metabolic pathways and mode of action of DDT and pyrethroids. Monitoring of resistance in yearly basis and searching for more adulticides and larvicides from other chemical groups as alternatives must be considered.
 Keywords: Anopheles arabiensis, malaria, susceptibility to insecticides, bioassay, DDT, permethrin, deltamethrin, bendiocarb, Sudan, Gedarif state
 

published in International Journal of Mosquito Research 2017; 4(3): 21-25

  • Effect of basil (Ocimum basilicum) Leaves Powder and Ethanolic-Extract on the 3rd Larval Instar of Anopheles arabiensis (Patton, 1905) (Culicidae: Diptera) Hiba EMA Mahmoud, Nabil HH Bashir

Malaria is transmitted by Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae), and the disease is a significant health problem in the Sudan, affecting 52% of outpatients and accounting for 9% of all hospital deaths. A cross-sectional study was conducted by collecting first to third instar larvae from Barakat area of Wad Medani town, Gezira State, Central Sudan. The third instar (L3) was used for the bioassay. Susceptibility to Basil (Ocimum basilicum), which is an abundant weed during the rainy-season, as a leaf powder, leaves ethanolic –extracts and the standard organophosphate larvicide temephos were investigated. Five concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 g/L) of the powder, and 1,2,…,5 mg/L of the extract were tested in a 1L beakers. Ten L3 larvae/beaker were exposed for 24 hr to each of these concentrations. Each concentration was replicated 3X, and the experiment was repeated twice for verification. The results showed that the extract LC50 was 58mg/L and LC90 was 143 mg/L; the slope of log-dose-probability line was 3.04. For the powder, the respective values were 9.19 g/L, 19.88 g/L and 3.82. The temephos resulted in 0.033 mg/L, 0.16 mg/L and 1.85, respectively. It can be concluded that using this natural, botanical extract and its leaf powder are effective, safe, economic and environmentally-sound in controlling the aquatic stages. It can be easily prepared and applied by villagers and others.
 
Keywords: Anopheles arabiensis, Sudan, Wad Medani. Basil, Ocimum basilicum, ethanolic extract, leaf powder, temephos, mosquitoes, Sudan

published in International Journal of Mosquito Research 2017; 4(2): 52-56

  • Knowledge, attitude and practices among malaria control program spray-workers in Gezira state, central Sudan, towards the use, application and hazards of insecticides

Insecticides have serious impact on humans, animals and environment. However, using insecticides in agriculture and public health is considered to be an easy way to control pests. This study was conducted in Gezira state (population 4 million), central Sudan, during the period November 2014- November 2016, investigating the knowledge attitude and practice (KAP) of 394 Malaria Control Program (MCP) workers about the insecticides and the personal protective equipment (PPE). Data was collected via a questionnaire, an interview and observation. The results showed that 65.2% of the spray-men are dailypaid (seasonal), <18 to >51 yr-old. Over 50% of them had education below high school, whereas >15% can hardly read. Those who had training before and during the job were > 96%, while those who were using the PPE properly were 78%. However, around 30.2% of the workers showed symptoms of poisoning, and 12.4% showed symptoms of different diseases that might relate to insecticides effect. Moreover, 24.3% of the spray-men were not under close supervision, consequently, this resulted in 21.6% of them not using all PPE items. Therefore, seasonal workers must be subjected to intensive training and closer supervision before and during the job. MCP must establish training unit that adopts the concept of continuous in-service training and up-dating.
 
Keywords: Knowledge, attitude, practice, KAP, pesticides, spray workers, Gezira state, Sudan, inservice training
 

published in International Journal of Mosquito Research 2017; 4(3): 38-43

  • Effect of Some Professions on the Lead Levels of Male Urine in Wad-Medani, Sudan Eltohami MME1, Bashir NHH1* and Mohamedani AA2

e home and workplace results in health hazards to adults and children. The objectives of the present study were to determine the Pb levels in urine in Wad Medani (capital of Gezira State, Central Sudan) male population represented by the following professions: University of Gezira (U of G) staff (supposedly unexposed population), traffic police (exposed to car exhaust fumes), car painters (exposed to Pb-based paints), gas stations workers (exposed to leaded fuel and its fumes) and car battery-repair workers (exposed to Pb and its fumes), in addition to investigating the correlation between Pb level and. duration of exposure. Urine samples were collected from these groups, analyzed by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The design adopted was completely randomized design. All tested sample revealed to presence of Pb in the urine. The means in all tested samples ranged from 22.89 - 42.0 µg/100 ml urine. significant differences were detected between groups at (p < 0.05). The detailed results, based on profession, were as follows: a) The U of G staff mean 22.8 (range: 20 - 28 µg/100 ml); b) Traffic police mean 31.11 (27 - 34 µg/100 ml); c) Gas/fuel stations workers mean 29.7 (27 - 33 µg/100 ml); d) Car -painting worker, mean 31.44 (28 - 35 µg/100 ml), and e) Battery repair workers, mean 36.2 (30 - 42 µg/100 ml). A strong positive correlation was found between Pb level and working duration (yr) in battery-repair

published in EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 4(4): 150-157

  • Sugar Industry as a Source of Pollution: A Case Study, Elgenaid Sugar Factory, Gezira State, Sudan , Mohamed E Hassan1*, Nabil H H Bashir² and Yousif O H Assad²

published in EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 4(5):202-212

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