النشر العلمي

  • Physicochemical, Microbial and Sensory Characteristics of Yoghurt Processed by Adding Various Formulations of Gum Arabic and Guar Gum

 

Yoghurt is one of the most popular fermented dairy products widely consumed all over the world. The present study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of
yoghurt produced by added various levels of Gum Arabic and Guar gum (stabilizers). Physicochemical characteristics, microbial characteristics and sensory evaluation of processed yoghurt samples were conducted under laboratory conditions by standard methods. The results showed that yoghurt produced by the addition of Gum Arabic at concentrations (0.2, 0.35, and 0.5%) had less serum separation (1.6, 1.4, and 3.3 ml/l) after 9 days compared with that produced by adding Guar gum (4.5., 3.1., 0.0 ml/lit), respectively, and their mixture (4.3., 6.1. and 3.5 ml/l). Results reported significant differences in pH values (4.9, 4.5, and 3.9) during storage (0, 3, and 9 days), respectively for all types of stabilizers added. The results illustrated significant differences in total solid (7–8%) at different concentrations during the storage period. The study showed no significant difference in stabilizers (Gum Arabic and Guar Gum). The effect of storage on microbial characteristics was determined and the results showed that all microbial characteristics except coliform bacteria showed a significant decrease in the supplemented yoghurt samples compared with those of control yoghurt, while no effect with stabilizer concentration on microbial characteristics. Sensory characteristics (texture, color, and overall acceptability) were significantly improved, while the flavor was not affected with type and concentrations of stabilizers, but affected with storage period. Yoghurt processed with the addition of Gum Arabic had best quality characteristics than yoghurt made with addition Guar gum and a mixture of them. The study recommended doing more researches in rheological, microbial, and sensory characteristics to improve the quality of yoghurt.
 
 

published in Annual Research & Review in Biology

  • Effect of Dietary Energy Level and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Fattening Performance of Sudan Desert Sheep

This study was designed to evaluate the effect of gastro-intestinal parasites on fattening performance of Sudan desert sheep fed two iso-nitrogenous (CP: 16.11 %) diets with either high (12.24 MJ/kg) or low (10.35 MJ/kg) metabolizable energy level. Forty-eight desert lambs, Hamary eco-type were purchased from Tendalty town (west of White Nile State) and transported to the experimental pens of the Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum. All selected animals were initially screened for external and internal parasites and 96% of them were found to be naturally infected with internal parasites (Trichostrongyles, Monezia and Coccidia) and 52% were harboring external parasites (ticks). All lambs were treated for external parasites by dipping into Cypermethrin and were then divided into two groups of twenty-four lambs each. One group was treated for internal parasites and the other was left naturally infected. The treatment was done by drenching with Albendazol (10%) and injecting with Ivermectin (1%). This treatment protocol was then conducted every fortnight using the two drugs alternatively. Each group was further subdivided according to age, 2 years of age (old) and less than one year (young), dietary energy (high and low) and health (treated and naturally infected). The design comprised 8 sub-groups of 6 animals each. The feeding trial lasted for 60 days during which, feedlot performance, along with haematological profile, parasitic infection, clinical signs observations, mortality, carcass characteristics and postmortem findings of both dead and slaughtered lambs were studied. The data were analyzed as a factorial design and the means were compared by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test using SPSS version 15.05-Computer program. The growth parameters as average daily gain, final body weight and total body weight gain showed highly significant (P< 0.001) differences among the treatments. Old lamb group which was treated for internal parasites and offered high energy diet recorded the best daily gain (0.26kg) with daily dry matter intake of 1.41 kg, followed by young lambs treated for internal parasites and given high energy diet which gained 0.20 kg/day with a dry matter intake of 1.27 kg/day. Old and young infected lamb groups which were offered low energy diet had the least performance as half of them died (6 out of 12) and the final live weights were reduced by 0.50 kg and 0.25kg for the old and young group, respectively. They also had the least carcass characteristics, as their cold carcass weights were only 8.53 kg and 19.47 kg for the young and old groups, respectively. The old lamb group that was treated for internal parasites and given high energy diet had significantly (P< 0.05) higher slaughter weight (39.67 kg) than young infected group which was given low energy diet (23.50 kg). Significant differences in carcass characteristics were recorded. Carcass weight of old lambs treated for internal parasites and given high energy diet was 9.86% higher than their counterpart left naturally infected. The best dressing percentage was for the old lamb group treated for internal parasites and offered high energy diet which was 56.59% (based on empty body weight) while that of old infected group fed low energy diet was only 44.13%. Carcass and wholesale cuts yields were not significantly affected by infection. Muscle percentage was significantly (P< 0.05) higher in the treated groups whether given high or low energy diet than in their counterpart control groups. Gut and rumen fills increased (P< 0.01) in the low energy groups whether treated or left naturally infected. Physical and subjective meat quality attributes (colour, water holding capacity and cooking loss) and meat chemical composition were not significantly affected by infection or dietary energy level. Postmortem examination of infected slaughtered and dead lambs revealed severe damage of the internal organs, abomasum, intestines, liver, spleen and lungs. Parasitic infection decreased in 25% of the infected lambs until no egg shed was detected; however, tapeworms were still detected in them after slaughter. Twenty five percent of the infected lambs died and 50% of the lambs remained infected until the end of the experiment. Weekly heamatological evaluation revealed no significant differences in TRBCs, TWBCs, Hb concentration, PCV and serum glucose level between treatments except for the 6th week data which revealed higher levels for the treated groups given high energy level. Economically the study proved that treatment of sheep for internal parasites coupled with high energy feeding increased percentage sales revenues and profits. Margin of sales of old lamb group that was treated for internal parasites and fed high energy diet was 23.80% while that of old group of lambs that was left naturally infected and fed low energy diet was negative and they achieved 40% losses in the total investment. Although the group of young lambs treated for internal parasites and given high energy diet ranked second in final body weight, they achieved the best profit which was 5.7% more than the profit of the group of old lambs treated for internal parasites and given high energy diet because they consumed less dry matter. Treatment of sheep for internal parasites coupled with high energy feeding is recommended and more studies in the field of gastro intestinal parasites and sheep production is recommended.

published in University of Khartoum, Sudan

  • Impact of Natural Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infection on Growth Performance and Economics of Production of the Sudan Desert Sheep

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of natural gastrointestinal parasitic infection on growth and economics production of Sudan Desert sheep. Forty-eight naturally infected lambs were divided into 2 groups of 24lambs each. One group was treated for internal parasites while the other was left naturally infected. Each group was then divided into two groups according to age (old two years and young milk teeth) and dietary energy level (high and low). The design ended up with eight groups of 6 individuals each which were The design ended up with eight groups of 6 individuals each which were old treated high energy (OTHE), old infected high energy (OIHE), old treated low energy (OTLE), old infected low energy (OILE), young treated high energy (YTHE),young infected high energy (YIHE), young treated low energy (YTLE) and young infected low energy (YILE). They were then fattened for 60 days during which feedlot performance, mortality rate, purchase prices, sales and margins were calculated. The growth parameters as average daily gain and final body showed significantly (P< 0.001) high differences among treatments. Margin percent of sales of (OTHE) was 23.80% while (OILE) lost 40% of their total cost. Although (YTHE) ranked second in term of performance, but they achieved the best profit which was 5.7% more than the profit of (OTHE) because of less dry matter consumption. The number of sold lambs for (OILE) and (YILE) decreased by 50% due to mortality. Total margin of (OTHE) was 98.08 $, while (OIHE) was sold for 36.36% less profit. The former group gained 82.81% more profit than (OTLE). Although older treated lambs gained more weight than younger ones but economically younger lambs were more profitable. Total sales revenue of (OTHE) was 510 $ with 19.2% total margin, while the total sales revenue of (YTHE) was 480 $ achieving 24.9% total margin.

Keywords: Gastrointestinal parasitic infection; Sheep; Animal industry; Goat

published in , Journal of Veterinary Science and Medical Diagnoses Vol: 6 Issue: 1

  • Efficacy and Selectivity of Pendimethalin for Weed Control in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.), Gezira State, Sudan

   Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is considered as the second most important crop in the world after sugar cane in sugar production. Weed competition is considered as one of the major constrains to achieve maximum sugar beet yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and selectivity of the herbicide Pendimethalin for weed control and its effect on sugar beet growth and yield. A field experiment was conducted during 2017/18 winter season at the experimental farm, Faculty of agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira, Sudan. The herbicide Pendimethalin (Pendico50% EC) at two rates (3.6 and 4.8 kg a.i. ha-1) was applied as per-sowing, two weeks before planting and irrigated immediately after application. Hand weeded and un-wedded treatments were added as controls. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design in 4 replicates. Data were subjected to analysis of variance procedure (P ≤ 0.05). Pendimethalin at the lower rate (3.6 kg a.i. ha-1) exhibited slight phytotoxicity on sugar beet plant. The herbicide at the lower rate gave 82% grass weed control and 56% broadleaved weed control. The herbicide treatments significantly increased the root length, root diameter and root weight of sugar beet as compared to un-weeded check. Pendimethalin at the two rates tested gave significantly high root weight compared to un-weeded check. The herbicide treatments increased the gross sugar yield. Pendimethalin at 3.6 and 4.8 kg a.i. ha-1 gave significantly high gross sugar yield (0.74 – 0.52 ton ha-1) compared to 0.15 kg ha-1 gross sugar yield of the un-weeded control. It could be concluded that Pendimethalin at 3.6 kg a.i. ha-1 could be used for weed control in sugar beet to be applied and immediately irrigated two weeks before sowing of sugar beet. Further studies are needed to confirm their safety and inclusion in a management program.

published in Journal of Research in Weed Science, 4 (1): 16-28

  • دور المقررات الدينية في تحقيق الاتزان الانفعالي وتعزيز المسؤولية الاجتماعية لدى طالبات أقسام الدراسات الإسلامية بالجامعات السودانية (طالبات قسم اللغة العربية والدراسات الإسلامية بكلية التربية – حنتوب، جامعة الجزيرة أنموذجاً)

هدفت الدراسة إلى التعرف على دور المناهج الدراسية المقررة لطلاب وطالبات أقسام الدراسات الإسلامية في الجامعات السودانية في تحقيق الاتزان الانفعالي وتعزيز خالشعور بالمسؤولية الاجتماعية لديهم، استخدمت الدراسة المنهج الوصفي مستعينة بالاستبانة أداة للدراسة، وتم اختيار عينة طبقية بالطريقة العشوائية البسيطة قوامها (240) من طالبات الفصلين الدراسيين السادس والثامن في قسم اللغة العربية والدراسات الإسلامية بكلية التربية – حنتوب بجامعة الجزيرة لتمثل مجتمع الدراسة، واستُخدم برنامج (SPSS) لتحليل النتائج. توصلت الدراسة إلى عدة نتائج منها: إنّ للمناهج الدينية دوراً إيجابياً في تحقيق الاتزان الانفعالي، وتعزيز المسؤولية الاجتماعية لدى طالبات أقسام الدراسات الإسلامية، وأثبتت الدراسة أنّ دور المناهج الدينية في تعزيز المسؤولية الاجتماعية لدى الطالبات أكبر من دورها في تحقيق الاتزان الانفعالي لديهن، أوصت الدراسة بتطوير المناهج الدينية بما يتوافق مع التقدم الاجتماعي المتسارع. واقترحت الدراسة إجراء دراسة للكشف عن أثر الخلفيات الدينية المتنوعة للمجتمعات على الواقع الأخلاقي والنفسي الاجتماعي والفكري لأبنائها على مستوى التعليم العام والعالي. (145).

published in مجلة العلوم الاجتماعية - بجامعة عمار ثليجي - الجمهورية الزائرية

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