النشر العلمي

  • Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Crop Water Requirements under Gezira Scheme Conditions, Sudan

Water rather than land (80 million hectare, mha) has limited the agricultural production and expansion in Sudan. Any further reduction in irrigation water availability thus would have severe detrimental impacts, especially on irrigated agriculture that is currently producing 50% of the crop yields. There is a very high confidence that the arid and semi-arid areas would suffer a decrease in water resources due to climate change. The specific objective of this study is to assess the impacts of climate change on the crop water requirements (CWR) of the main grown crops in the Gezira scheme. Two approaches were used for the assessment. The first is the HADGEM2-ES climate change model approach. The second is the Change Factor approach. Both indicated decreasing trends in rainfall and the opposite holds true for temperature. Accordingly, the CWR increased by 5-45% for cotton, 9-45% for groundnut, 9-51% for sorghum, 15-52% for wheat and 4-40% for small vegetables. Consequently, with the assumption that the irrigation efficiency is 100%, the command area of the scheme (2.1 million feddan) by the year 2040 would need an irrigation water supply of 6.6 - 9 km3. Thus, the total CWR would be increased by 50% (3.0 km3), which outweighs the drawn benefits of the Rosieres dam heightening project. Under the condition that the Sudan’s share in Nile water (18.5 km3) is remained constant the efficient use of irrigation water is the paved way to follow for bridging such tremendous expected deficit. This necessitates capacity building programs and win-win cooperation with Egypt and Ethiopia. 

published in Gezira Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

  • Using remotely sensed and ancillary data to predict spatial variability of rainfed crop yield

Rainfed agriculture is dominant in Sudan. The current methods for crop yield
estimation are based on taking random cutting samples during harvesting time.
This is ineffective in terms of cost of information and time. The general objective
of this study is to highlight the potential role of remote-sensing techniques in
upgrading methods of monitoring rainfed agricultural performance. The specific
objective is to develop a relationship between satellite-derived crop data and yield
of rainfed sorghum. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), rainfall,
air temperature (AT) and soil moisture (SM) are used as independent variables
and yield as a dependent variable. To determine the uncertainty associated with
the independent variables, a sensitivity analysis (SA) is conducted. Multiple models
are developed using different combinations of data sets. The temporal images
taken during sorghum’s mid-season growth stage give a better prediction than
those taken during its development growth stage. Among predictor variables, SM
is associated with the highest uncertainty.

published in International Journal of Remote Sensing

  • Assessment of irrigation systems sustainability using the Theil-Sen estimator of slope of time series

Agriculture, especially the irrigated sector, is the mainstay of Sudan’s economy as it accounts for 40 % of gross domestic product (GDP) and employs 70 % of the workforce. The economic viability of irrigated schemes is dependent on three factors: crop yield, water management and cropped area. The research question of this study was whether or not the current status of these factors can be sustained in order to maintain the economic viability of irrigation systems? To answer this question, a new (to the best of the author’s knowledge) approach was developed based on time series analysis, and on the Theil–Sen estimator of slope. The study defined sustainability conceptually as ‘‘the ability of an irrigation system to sustain crop yields using the optimum cropped area and water consumption to realize the economic viability of the irrigation system without a decline in soil quality and environment’’. Time series datasets of crop yields, cropped area and irrigation water consumption are collected routinely by statistical departments. Any abrupt years in the development of trends were detected and related to their driving forces/ causes, of which climatic conditions and marketing policies were found to be the most important. The simple approach developed proved its suitability for quantifying the progress of irrigated schemes’ towards sustainability development as tested under the conditions of Gezira irrigated scheme in Sudan—the largest singly managed irrigation scheme in the world. The scheme was found to be sustainable under the condition that the crop yield is considered as the top priority; otherwise, the sustainability of the scheme is jeopardized.

published in Sustainability Science

  • Compressed Sensing for Real-Time Doppler Ultrasound Image Reconstruction

A Doppler ultrasound signal has been reconstructed using different compressed sensing algorithms. With compressed sensing it’s possible to reconstruct signals and images using a few numbers of measurements so as to overcome the limitation of sampling in a real-time Doppler ultrasound sonogram. In this work we want to compare different compressed sensing algorithms used for Doppler ultrasound signal reconstruction so as to select the best algorithm that, gives a real-time Doppler ultrasound image and maintain quality. The result shows that regularized orthogonal matching pursuit reconstruction algorithm reconstructs the Doppler signal and gives Doppler spectrum in a real-time with high quality also ℓ1-norm reconstructs the Doppler signal and gives Doppler spectrum with a good quality, but the reconstruction time was very long

published in International Journal of Systems Engineering

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