النشر العلمي

  • Job satisfaction for Physicians and Auxiliary Medical Staff working in Public Health Institutions (A case study: Managil Teaching Hospital; Gezira State, Sudan)

1,2Malik El Naeem Mohamed and 3 Haydar Babikir

1,2Faculty of Economics and Rural Development, University of Gezira, Sudan.

3Faculty of Medicine, University of Gezira, Sudan.

This research aims to assess some of the aspects and factors that underlie the lack of job satisfaction (JS) to propose solutions of problems and constraints faced by public institutions. A descriptive and analytical method was used. A structured questionnaire was the research tool. SPSS program was used for the data analysis. There was a positive and statistically significant correlation between wages, incentive system, management and JS. There was a negative relationship between the environment, training and JS. About (64.3%) of the respondents were dissatisfied with their jobs, (28.3%) were dissatisfied with career advancement system, and (61.3%) stated that the lack of JS does not affect their relation with patients. Focus on wages and incentives system and to achieve the principle of justice in bonuses is needed to have a JS. The institution's objectives and structure must be explained to employees, and to create objective control measures to prevent the politicization of government job and on the subject of appointments and promotions.
Keywords: job satisfaction, doctors, medical assistance staff, wages, promotion, Sudan.
Job satisfaction (JS) is the degree to which employees feel personally fulfilled and content in their job roles. It is considered an important administrative topic in private and government organizations. It is linked to the issues of performance, productivity, and organizational loyalty. JS impact cannot be concluded from short term researches. The low wages, incentives and the lack of modern equipment and the impact of poor working environment and poor training of administrative complexity, all these lead to the lack of job satfication. Workplace environments greatly influence employee satisfaction, which in turn directly affects employee turnover rates. JS can be understood in terms of its relationships with other key factors, such as general well-being, stress at work, control at work, home-work interface, and working conditions.
Managil Teaching Hospital provides educational, medical and health services for large groups of population in Managil locality, Gezira State, central Sudan. The hospital social entity includes doctors and auxiliary medical staff, as well as employees of non-medical staff. It has been observed that the doctors and other cadres have recently left their jobs. A problem that creates a brain drain, which opens the way to study this phenomenon. The research question was: Are the reasons for this brain drain in public institutions related to a lack of job satisfaction, or for other reasons? The study aims to assess some of the aspects and factors that
Corresponding author.E-mail: elfadni45@gmail.com or malikem@uofg.edu.sd.
Journal of Medical and Biological Science Research
Vol. 1 (7), pp. xxx-xxxx, September, 2015
ISSN: 2449-1810
Research Paper
underlie the lack of job satisfaction (JS) and job stability to propose solutions of problems and constraints faced by public institutions.
Job satisfaction most widely used definition is that of Locke "a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of satisfaction measures vary in the extent to which they measure feelings about the job (affective job satisfaction), or cognitions about the job (cognitive job satisfaction)". JS is assessed at both the global level, or at the facet level that is whether or not the individual is satisfied with different aspects of the job, Spector (1997) lists 14 common facets: (Appreciation, Communication, Coworkers, Fringe benefits, Job conditions, Nature of the work, Organization, Personal growth, Policies and procedures, Promotion opportunities, Recognition, Security, and Supervision). JS includes multidimensional psychological responses to an individual's job, and that, these personal responses have cognitive (evaluative), affective (or emotional), and behavioral components (Hulin and Judge, 2003).
A study analyzing factors affecting JS of the Employees in Public and Private Sector in India concluded that employees in India tend to love their job if they get what they believe is an important attribute of a good job. Most of the employees in Indian industry are not satisfied with their job except for a few, like male in commerce sector and female in education sector. Total JS level of males is found to be higher than that of women and that in manufacturing sector is found to be very low (Kumari et al., 2014).
Job characteristics which include (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) impact job outcomes, including job satisfaction (Hackman and Oldham 1976). Job characteristics impact critical psychological states and in turn influencing work outcomes (JS, absenteeism, work motivation, and performance).
One specific area of investigation is the study of differing levels of reported job satisfaction by gender. Practically all studies (Sloane and Williams, 2000; Sousa-Poza and Sousa-Poza, 2003; Long, 2005) have shown that females possess higher levels of job satisfaction compared to males, a puzzling outcome when one considers the existence of gender wage differentials in favor of males, as well as occupational segregation by gender, with women occupying jobs with „lower‟ prestige. There exist a number of theories as to why females possess higher levels of job satisfaction. These include the role of expectations, a possible difference in work „values‟ and female selection into employment (Bender and Heywood, 2006).
Promotions are also an important aspect of a worker‟s career and life, affecting other facets of the work experience. They constitute an important aspect of workers‟ labor mobility, most often carrying substantial wage increases (Kosteas, 2009; Blau and DeVaro, 2007)
and can have a significant impact on other job characteristics such as responsibilities and subsequent job attachment. Promotions also serve to place individuals into different jobs, where their skills can be used to greater effect. However, not all promotions carry an increase in supervisory responsibilities or significant changes in tasks.
A work environment is made up of a range of factors, including company culture, management styles, hierarchies and human resources policies. Low levels of job satisfaction and high rates of burnout and attrition are common among behavioral health providers serving challenging patient populations (Bingham et al., 2002). This is especially true in rural areas where behavioral health workers appear to be at higher risk of burnout and job attrition. Massad, 2005 and DeStefano et al.(2005) found that 90% of rural behavioral health workers in Arizona had been with a health provider agency for 7 years or less, with 73% in their first three years. Osborn (2004) suggests this high rate of burnout and attrition may be due to the fact that behavioral health providers are overwhelmed with numerous demands on their time, talents, and resources.
Bai et al. (2006) reported a consistent relationship between job satisfaction and increasing wage for food service employees. Lam et al. (2001) investigated employees‟ job satisfaction in Hong Kong Hotels and their research results specifically showed that wages is the most important category contributing to job satisfaction.
Researchers follow the descriptive analytical method. The sample was taken from Managil Teaching Hospital purposefully chosen because it represents one of the largest hospitals outside the state capital, and its services covers a large and densely populated area who are in die needs for this medical services. The sample consists of doctors and auxiliary medical staff assistance.
A preliminary visit to determine all the themes to be discussed such as to what extent the research sample is familiar with the importance of training, and impact of that training on raising up the work and study whether administration authority is basically interested in establishment of the training courses and their number. Whether new technology has been introduced in laboratory tests, as well as the introduction of modern surgery such as laparoscopic surgery.
Structured pre-coded questionnaire was designed as a tool to collect information. It includes information about wages and incentives, the hospital environment, the availability of a new technology for training and management. The data were analyzed by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program and the

published in Pearl Research Journals

  • معوقات استخدام تقنية التعليم الالكتروني في برامج تعليم الكبار بكلية التربية – حنتوب جامعة الجزيرة



هدفت الدراسة إلى التعرف على معوقات استخدام تقنية التعليم الإلكتروني في برامج تعليم الكبار، ومعرفة درجة اختلاف وجهات نظر أفراد العينة في ضوء عدد من المتغيرات، إتبعت المنهج الوصفى التحليلي القائم على الدراسة الميدانية. تكون ّ مجتمع الدراسة من طلاب اللغة العربية الناطقين بغيرها والبالغ عددهم (66) طالباً ولتحقيق هذا الغرض أعدت استبانة مكونة من (17) عبارة وتم تطبيقها بعد التحقق من صدقها وثباتها على عينة مكونة من (43) طالباً ، وبعد جمع البيانات تم تحليلها عن طريق برنامج الحزم الاحصائية للعلوم الاجتماعية (SPSS) وتوصلت الدراسة إلى مجموعة من النتائج أهمها وجود معوقات تحول دون استخدام تقنية التعليم الإلكتروني في برامج تعليم الكبار بكلية التربية – حنتوب  جامعة الجزيرة تتمثل في : عدم توافر التدريب المناسب للأساتذة فى مجال استخدام تقنية التعليم الإلكتروني ، وكذلك اعتقادهم أن استخدام هذه التقنية امراً ثانوياً، ثم عدم وجود فروق ذات دلالة احصائية بين آراء افراد العينة حول استخدام تقنية التعليم الإلكتروني ترجع لمتغير المستوى الدراسي، التخصص، وجود فروق ذات دلالة احصائية بين آراء أفراد العينة حول استخدام تقنية التعليم الإلكتروني ترجع لمتغير العمر لصالح (20- 29) سنة وعلى ضوء النتائج السابقة أوصى الباحثان ببعض التوصيات ، منها إجراء مزيد من الدراسات حول بعض حلول استخدام تقنية التعليم الإلكتروني لمشكلات تعليم الكبار.

published in مجلة جامعة عين شمس

  • الربط بين التعليم العالي والبحث العلمى (جامعة الجزيرة أنموذجاً)

المهام الأساسيه لأي جامعة هى التدريس لنشر المعرفه، والبحث العلمى لتوليد المعرفه وتنميتها وتقديم الحلول من أجل خدمة  المجتمع والارتقاء به. إن رؤية جامعة الجزيرة هى  بلوغ أعلى درجات التميز العلمي والتقني وإستدامته في مجالات البحث والتدريس وخدمة المجتمع. يعتبر البحث جزءاً حيوياً في رسالة الجامعة فالبحث العلمي والتعليم العالي هما وجهان لعملة واحدة؛ إذ إن كليهما يكمٌل الآخر. فمن خلال البحوث تتمكن الجامعة  من تحقيق أهدافها الرئيسة المتمثلة في تقديم الخدمات الإستشارية للقطاعين العام والخاص ، والإسهام بفاعلية في إستنبات  التكنولوجيا محلياً ونقلها إلى مواقع التطبيق والاستفادة من التكنولوجيا المنتجة عالمياً ومواءمتها للواقع المحلي وتحديث آليات الإنتاج والخدمات. فمن أجل الوصول الى ذلك تم إنشاء عمادة للدراسات العليا والبحث العلمى فى جامعة الجزيرة-جمهورية السودان لتنسيق وإدارة البحوث التى تجرى بواسطة الأساتذة و طلاب الدراسات العليا. تقدم وزارة التعليم العالى والبحث العلمي التمويل لبعض البحوث التى تجرى فى الجامعة بينما يتم تمويل بعض البحوث من مصادر أخرى.

تجدر الإشاره إلى أن جامعة الجزيرة بها عدد من المعاهد والمراكز البحثيه المتخصصه مثل معهد السكر، معهد إدارة المياه والرى، المعهد القومى لتنمية الصادرات البستانية، المعهد القومى لبحوث تصنيع الحبوب الزيتية، مركز أمراض النبات، المعهد القومى لدراسات الصحراء، معهد بحوث الرحل، مركز بحوث المحاصيل المطرية ومركز دراسات مشروع الجزيرة.

إن هذه الورقة تستعرض واقع البحث العلمي  فى كلية العلوم الزراعية -جامعة الجزيرة وأهم المعوقات التي تواجهه، كما عمدت إلي طرح  مشاكل النشر الأكاديمي فى الجامعة. ثم خلصت الورقة إلي وضع بعض المقترحات والتوصيات لتطوير العمل البحثي فى جامعة الجزيرة على ضوء معايير الجودة والابتكار والاستدامة.

published in المؤتمر الدولي

  • Effect of Molecular Weight of PCL on the Structure and Mechanical Properties of PCL PET

Abstract: A new scaffold has been developed,which made from poly
(ε-caprolactone ) ( PCL) membrane with porous structure,and
reinforcement of PCL scaffold was achieved by embedding
polyethylene terephthalate (PET) weft-knit tubular fabric. The aim
of this paper is to study the variation tendency of the morphology
and the mechanical properties of the sample with the changing of
molecular weight. Weighing method was used to analyze the porosity
of the sample,and scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) images
were taken to observe porous structure. The tensile and compressive
strengths of the samples were tested by the universal mechanical
tester and radial compression apparatus, respectively. And the
results showed that the porosity and compressive strength were
improved when increasing the molecular weight,and the elastic
recovery rate was also improved slightly. However, molecular
weight has little impact on the tensile strength properties,because
the PET tubular fabric provides most of the strength support rather
than PCL membrane.
Key words: poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL); molecular weight; porous
structure; mechanical properties; vascular scaffold

published in Journal of Donghua University

  • Degradable non-degradable polymer composites for in-situ tissue engineering small diameter vascular prosthesis application

Various tissue-engineered vascular grafts have been studied in order to overcome the clinical disadvantages associated
with conventional prostheses. However, previous tissue-engineered vascular grafts have possessed insufficient mechanical
properties and thus have generally required either preoperative cellular manipulation or the use of bioreactors to
improve their performance. In this study, we focused on the concept of in situ cellularization and developed a tissueengineered
vascular graft with degradable/ non-degradable polymer composites for arterial reconstruction that would facilitate
the renewal of autologous tissue without any pretreatment. Additionally, these composites are designed to improve the
mechanical performance of a small-diameter vascular prosthesis scaffold that is made from a flexible membrane of poly(ε-
caprolactone) (PCL). The PCL scaffold was reinforced by embedding a tubular fabric that was knitted from polyethylene
terephthalate (PET) yarns within the freeze-dried composite structure. Adding this knitted fabric component significantly
improved the mechanical properties of the composite scaffold, such as its tensile strength and initial modulus, radial compliance,
compression recovery, and suture retention force. Finally, this reinforced composite structure is a promising candidate
for use as a tissue-engineered scaffold for a future small diameter vascular prosthesis.
Keywords: Vascular prosthesis, knitted fabric, poly (ε-caprolactone), composite structure, mechanical properties, reinforcement

published in Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering

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