النشر العلمي

  • Determination of Draft Power Requirements for Tillage Implements Under Central Gezira Clay Soil Conditions

Abstract
This study was conducted to determine the draft power required for different tillage implements
under central Gezira clay soil conditions. The experimental work involved five implements
(chisel plow, moldboard plow, disk plow, disk harrow and ridger) which were tested at three
speeds (3.5, 4.0 and 4.5 km/h) under two levels of soil moisture content (14.8% - pre-watered
soil, and 4.2% - dry soil). A split-split plot experimental design with three replications was used.
The draft power required, and the fuel consumed, by operating individual implement for primary
tillage were measured. Moreover, the draft power, and the fuel consumed, for the operation of a
secondary tillage implement (disk harrow) after primary tillage were measured. Statistical
analysis of the results showed that the required draft power and fuel consumption for primary
and secondary tillage operations significantly increased with increased speed and decreased with
increased soil moisture content. For primary tillage, the draft power required to operate the
chisel plow was significantly higher than for the other tested implements, regardless of the
operating speed and the soil moisture content ( the highest value of chisel plow draft power was
31.07 HP, which was found in speed 4.5 km/hr and moisture content 4.2 %); while the disk
harrow draft power requirements were significantly the lowest ( the lowest value of disk harrow
draft power was 14.82 HP, was found in speed 3.5 km/hr and moisture content 14.8 %). The fuel
consumed by the operation of the chisel plow was significantly higher compared to the other
tested implements, while the fuel requirements for the disk harrow were significantly the lowest.
The results clearly indicated that pre-watering of soil moisture of 14.3 % before primary tillage,
and operating the implement at a medium speed of 4.0 km/h, will significantly decrease the draft
power and fuel required for both primary and secondary tillage operations
Keywords: Draft power, Fuel consumption, Tillage implement, Moisture conten
 2015 Sudan University of Science and Technology, All rights reserved

published in SUST Journal of Agricultural and Veterinrary Seinces

  • Induction of Flowering in Texas Early Grano Onion Cultivar Using Vernalization and Gibberellic Acid under Gezira State Conditions, Sudan.

Abstract: Field experiments were conducted at the research farm of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira,
Wad Medani, Sudan, during seasons of 2008 to 2010. Treatments consisted of vernalization periods, which ranged from 30 to 180
days, vernalization temperatures of zero to 14° C and gibberellin concentrations ranging from zero to 600 ppm. Results indicated that
vernalization temperatures of 4 to 5° C for 90 days or more was the key factor for the induction of flowering in Texas Early Grano
cultivar. Application of GA3 alone, without vernalization, at all concentrations tested failed to induce flowering. However, the highest
bolting percentage and seed yield were obtained by a combination of vernalization at 4 to 5° C for 180 days and the application of
GA3 at the rate of 600 ppm. It is recommended to vernalize bulbs of “Texas Early Grano” cultivar at 4 to 5° C for 180 days with the
application of GA3 at the rate of 600 ppm for seed production under Gezira conditions.

published in Int. J Sc.Res. Publications vol 5 issue 9, Sept. 2015::1-7.

  • Effects of irrigation regime, type of fertilizer and nitrogen rate on fruit quality of mango (Mangifera indica L.) in Abu Karshoula, South Kordofan Statte, Sudan

An experiment was carried out at Abu Karshoula, South Kordofan State, Sudan, during seasons  2009/10 and 2010/11 seasons. The objective was to study the effects of irrigation regime, type of fertilizer and nitrogen rate on fruit quality of the local mango cultivar Kitchener. Treatments consisted of irrigated or non-irrigated trees. Types of fertilizer were urea, cow manure and a combination of urea and cow manure. Nitrogen was applied at 0 kg N/ha, 43 kg N/ha and 86 kg N/ha. Treatments were arranged in a split-split plot design with irrigation treatments as the main plots, types of fertilizer as the sub-plots and N rates as the sub-sub plots, replicated three times. Results showed that irrigated trees significantly produced larger fruits with a longer  green life, higher TSS  content,  better fruit taste and higher overall quality than  those of non-irrigated ones in both seasons. Application of N in the form of cow manure alone or a combination of cow manure and urea   significantly resulted in the longest fruit green life, highest fruit TSS content and the best fruit taste as compared to urea  alone. However, combination of urea and cow manure significantly increased fruit size. Application of N at 43 kg/ha or 86 kg/ha significantly resulted in the largest fruit size, the longest fruit green life, the highest fruit TSS content and the best fruit taste as compared to the unfertilized control. Nitrogen rate had no significant effects on fruit quality, however, the higher N rate increased fruit size. Hence, it is recommended to irrigate mango trees and apply N in a combination of urea and cow manure at the rate of 86 kg/ha in order to improve mango fruit quality in South Kordofan State.

 

published in Sudan J of Agric Research : (2015) , 25, 45-54..

  • Evaluation of selected grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars and their response to pruning and gibberellin treatment Mohamed E. Elkashif et al

Grapes are temperate region plants which are adapted to warm summers and cold winters. This study was carried out to evaluate six genotypes of grapes under Khartoum conditions and to investigate the response of selected grape cultivars to pruning and gibberellin treatment. The experiments were conducted at Zadna for Agricultural Services Experimental Farm at Alkadaru, Khartoum State, Sudan, during the seasons of 2010/11 and 2011/12. In the first experiment, six  grape  cultivars, namely, Cardinal, Alphonse, Prima, Crimson, Superior and Lival, which were introduced from France were evaluated in a completely randomized design with three replicates. Pruning levels were severe pruning, light pruning and no pruning. Pruning treatments were carried out on Alphonse and Cardinal cultivars and were arranged in a split-plot design with three replicates. Grape cultivars were assigned to the main plots and pruning treatments  to the  sub-plots. The effects of gibberellin were also studied on Alphonse and Cardinal; it was either applied after full bloom at 10 mg/l GA3 or not applied. Gibberellin treatments were arranged in a split-plot design with three replicates. Grape cultivars were assigned to the main plots and gibberellin treatments to the sub-plots. Each replicate consisted of four vines. Flowering was not observed on Crimson, Superior and Lival in both seasons and on Prima in season 2011/12. The results showed significant differences among the  cultivars Alphonse, Cardinal and Prima on number of days from flowering to fruit maturity and on total yield. The cultivar Prima was the earliest to mature but scored the lowest yield, whereas Cardinal scored the highest yield. Severe pruning significantly resulted in the highest yield followed by light pruning and no pruning scored the lowest yield. Gibberellin treatment resulted in the largest clusters and  berries and the highest yields in all three cultivars. It is recommended to grow Alphonse and Cardinal grape cultivars, coupled with severe pruning and gibberellin treatment for the highest yields and best fruit quality.

published in Sudan J of Agric Research :( 2015) , 25 ,31-44.

  • Effects of cold and shade storage methods on the storability of some onion ( Allium cepa L.) cultivars Abd Elgadir et al.

        Onion is a delicate and perishable crop which is traditionally stored in the open field. Hence, losses can reach up to 40% or more. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of some storage methods on the storability of selected onion cultivars. This study was carried out at the National Institute for the Promotion of Horticultural Exports Research Farm, University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan and at a commercial refrigerator at Wad Medani and at Hasahisa, in the seasons of 2011 and 2012. Treatments consisted of two types of storage methods, namely, storage in the shade and refrigerated storage, and three onion cultivars, namely, Fadasi, Kamleen Yellow and Baftaim. Onion bulbs from the three cultivars were bagged in jute sacks and then stored under the mentioned storage methods for 5 months. Treatments were arranged in a split plot design with three replicates. Storage methods were assigned to the main plots and cultivars to the sub-plots. Fresh weight was determined at the beginning of the storage period and then at monthly intervals. Sorting was carried out every month to calculate percentages of rotted, sprouted and green bulbs. Weight loss, rotting, sprouting, greening, and total loss percentages were significantly affected by storage methods and onion cultivars. The refrigerated storage resulted in the minimum weight loss compared to the shade storage. Fadasi had the least weight loss, followed by Kamleen Yellow, and finally Baftaim which obtained the highest weight loss. Generally, rotting was  negligible in the refrigerated storage, whereas the shade storage had rotted bulbs. Baftaim cultivar recorded the highest percentage of rotted bulbs, followed by Kamleen Yellow, and finally Fadasi. The refrigerated storage had higher percentage of sprouted bulbs compared to the shade one. However, Baftaim produced the highest percentage of sprouted bulbs as compared to the other cultivars which were comparable. Bulb greening was negligible in the refrigerated method, while the shade method had green bulbs. Generally, greening was negligible in Fadasi and Baftaim, whereas Kamleen Yellow recorded the highest. The minimum total loss percentage was in the refrigerated storage as compared to the shade one. However, Fadasi had the least total loss percentage, followed by Kamleen Yellow, and finally Baftaim. Hence, it is recommended to store onion bulbs of Fadasi and Kamleen Yellow cultivars using refrigerated storage.

published in University of Bakht Alruda Sc. J. Issue 15 December No 15 : 52-78.

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