النشر العلمي

  • (Production and quality assessment of vinegar prepared from nabag (Zizyphus spina christi

The objective of the study was to produce vinegar from nabag fruit and to evaluate its quality. The average
chemical components of nabag fruit were; 6.6 ± 0.09% moisture, 7.0 ± 0.1% protein, 0.6 ± 0.1% oil, 3.0 ± 0.4%
ash, 4.0 ± 0.7% fiber and 78.8% carbohydrate. The minerals contents (g/100g) were; 0.012 sodium, 0.36 potassium
and 0.25 calcium. The
ascorbic acid was found to be 36.28 (mg/100g). Nabag fruit also contained sucrose, glucose and fructose. The
nutritional composition of nabag fruit pulp suggests that it can be used in food formulation as industrial raw
materials. The alcoholic fermentation experiment was conducted to produce ethanol which was then oxidized to
acetic acid depending on nabag sugar concentration. The concentration of the distilled ethanol after fermentation
was found to be 89%. After oxidation process, 100 ml vinegar was obtained. The study indicated that the volume
of vinegar production was 828 ml per kg of nabag and the concentration of vinegar was equivalent to 6.12% and
had a pH value of (2.8).

published in Sudan Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 20 (2012) PP.4960

  • Effect of Incorporation of Peanut Skin Flour to the Production of Wheat Bread

This study aimed to find out the effect of incorporating the by-products peanut skin flour in bread formulation at 5%. 7.55 and 10% levels. The results show that peanut skin contained: 9.25%, 4.6%, 11.7%, 9.42% and 65.08% protein, fats, crude fibre, ash and carbohydrates, respectively. The analysis for rheological properties indicates that the addition of various levels of peanut skin to wheat flour caused an increase in arrived time and a decrease in dough stability. Maximum resistance to extension was found to be increased from 420 for wheat flour alone to 634 millimeters for wheat flour containing 5% peanut skin powder, while increasing the addition of peanut skin to 7.5%, 10% caused a increase in dough resistance to (B.U extension to 851 and 957 B.U, respectively. The bread samples prepared by adding peanut skin flours have lead to increase in the water absorption while the arrival time and dough stability were decreased. Addition of peanut skin flour to the bread baking has resulted in production of highly nutritious bread which has been highly accepted by the human panelists. So, nutritional fibre as a food industry by product is recommended to be used as food additives to gain nutritional and healthy benefit.

published in Food and Public Health 2014, 4(2): 49-53

  • Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of White Cheese (Jibna-beida) Produced in Sudan

This study aimed to investigate the chemical and microbiological characteristics of Jibna–beida collected from
some Sudanese local markets (Kenana, Eldueim, Elobeid, ELgezira and New Halfa ). The average chemical composition was
50.31%, total solids, 49.49% moisture, 20.12 % protein, 22.27 fat, 4.76 salt, 5.57 % ash, 1.64 lactose, 4.85 pH, 1.85 titratable
acidity, 1.70 (0.1N ml NaOH /100g cheese ), volatile fatty acids, 10.02 mg/100g acetaldehyde , 30.89 mg/100g diacetyl
content. Most of the chemical components of collected cheeses were in close agreements to those of literature values with
slight variations. The microbiological analysis revealed the presence of some pathogenic bacteria like Staphylcoccus aureus,
Salmonella spp. and coliform bacteria in most of the collected cheeses, which contained high counts of total bacteria (TBC),
lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts and moulds which averaged 9.02x 106cfu/ml for TBC, 6.5x105 cfu/ml for LAB, 5.5x101
cfu/ml for coliform, 3.5× 101 cfu/ml fo r Salmonella, 3.7x103 cfu/ml for Staphylococcus aureus, 1.86x105 cfu/ml for yeast and
moulds.

published in Food and Public Health 2012, 2(6): 259-264

  • Free Amino Acids and Fatty Acids Composition of Kejeik, A Dry Fish Product of the Sudan

Kejeik product samples were collected from two different locations in Sudan including Singah city (Blue Nile) and Kusti city (White Nile). The aims of the present study were to investigate the contents of free amino acids and fatty acids in Kejeik product. The chemical analysis indicated that Kejeik product is a good source of protein, amino acids, and fatty acids. The production area has a non-significant effect in most of the chemical components. The results indicated an increase in glutamic acid, lysine, leucine, alanine, arginine, valine and isoleucine levels, whereas levels of methionine, tyrosine, histidine and serine relatively decreased in Kejeik product. It is observed that, the fatty acid content of three types of Kejeik was significantly affected by the production area. The study concluded that Kejeik has a highly nutritive value which is recommended to be utilized in Sudanese meals especially during shortage of protein and other nutrients sources.

published in International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering 2014, 4(2): 43-48

  • Nutritional Value of Kejeik: A Dry Fish Product of the Sudan

Kejeik product samples were collected from two different locations in Sudan including Singah city
(Blue Nile) and Kusti city (White Nile). The contents of protein, moisture, ash, fat, crude fiber and
carbohydrates varied considerably and ranged between 63.52-78.06, 5.37-6.69, 5.78-11.8, 9.04-16.13, 0.55-1.34 and
0.59-1.61 % respectively, in the various Kejeik samples. However, the production area has a non-significant
effect in most of the chemical components. All Kejeik samples contained appreciable amOlmts of macro-minerals
and the calcilllll was the highest in all samples. In addition, Kejeik samples contained most of the
micro-minerals, however, N awk and Ijl Kejeik collected from Singah contained the lowest concentrations of iron.
The study concluded that Kejeik is a safe food with a highly nutritive value which is recommended to be
utilized in Sudanese meals especially during shortage of protein and other nutrients sources.

published in Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 2014

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