النشر العلمي

  • Pricing of Sorghum Irrigation Water: A Comparison between Gravity, Spate and Rain-fed Irrigations in Sudan

There is global consensus to use scientific approaches to value all natural resources including water resources. Valuation of water is one way of making users more aware of its value. The aims of this paper is to determine the value of water used in agriculture under gravity system in Gezira Scheme and spate irrigation systems in Gash Delta Agricultural Corporation in Sudan. CROPWAT model was used to determine the volume of water supplied for irrigation. Net revenue was calculated to determine the output from agriculture. The main results show that the net values of water are $0.005/m3 and $ 0.001/m3 under gravity and spate irrigation systems respectively. The value of water used in gravity irrigation system is greater than water used in spate irrigation system. These findings will help into setting real value and cost of water in agriculture as the major consumptive sector and hence will help policy makers in developing decisions on agricultural water. 

published in Gezira Journal of Economics and Social Sciences. Vol.6, No 2. 2015. Pp 2-14

  • Sowing dates and crop replacements strategies to adapt climate change impact on traditional rain fed agriculture in semi arid regions: A case of North Kordofan in Sudan

The purpose of this paper is to develop agricultural and water management strategies to help poor traditional rain fed farmers to adapt climate change impact on agriculture in North Kordofan region in Sudan. Historic climate data from the study area were collected and analyzed using CROPWAT model version 8.0. Reference Evapotranspiration (ETo), effective rainfall and irrigation requirements to develop different sowing dates strategies were also measured using CROPWAT model. Field visits observations and discussion with farmers also helped the author in results justifications. The study found that early sowing dates are better than late sowing in traditional rain fed sector in North Kordofan. Early sowing date secured water for almost 70 days of the crop cycle. Also under early sowing dates, soil moisture can maintain the crop at a later stage of growth. The paper investigated that drought tolerant Sesame crop replaced the millet crop for climate adaptation purposes in North Kordofan. This research study is considered the first to develop agricultural and water management strategies to cope with climate change impact on traditional rain fed agriculture in North Kordofan, Sudan. The paper highlights innovations farmers are making to adjust to the changes they observe

published in International Journal of Sudan Research (IJSR)

  • Comparative Performance of Water User Associations Policy: a Showed Case of Gezira Scheme, Sudan

Gezira scheme (0.88 million hectare) has recently showed a low level of economical efficiency. The government introduced the policy of water users’ associations (WUAs) in 2005 to be responsible for water management and crop choices. The objective of this study is to assess the performance of WUAs in Gezira Scheme using selected remotely sensed-based indicators. Images were collected for three seasons 2004/2005, 2005/2006 and 2011/2012, representing the period prior to the WUAs, the start season of the policy and a validation season, respectively. Based on the Mann-kendall test the cultivated area showed a significant decreasing trend (P = 0.002) for the last thirty years with the current cropping intensity of 0.48. The study showed mixed results. The adoption of WUAs policy resulted in no significant improvement (P=0.29) in the monthly overall consumed ratio, suggesting that the performance of WUAs policy is not promising. The scheme water depletion fraction (DF) was poor (less than 1%) throughout the study seasons due to high evaporation losses. Relatively, the adoption of WUAs policy however in the second season significantly (P=0.0) increase the DF from 0.07% to 0.1% because of the improvement in irrigation adequacy. This improvement was not sustained since the DF was decreased to 0.05% in the validation season. On the basis of standardized gross value of production, the WUAs policy succeeded in increasing farmers’ income by widened crop choices. The WUAs policy is a good turning point; however its adoption should be followed by irrigation canal maintenance and capacity building programs.

published in Gezira Journal of Engineering and technology

  • Assessment of water users associations in Spate Irrigation Systems: Case Study of Gash Delta Agricultural Corporation, Sudan

The purpose of this study is to assess Water Users Associations (WUAs) technically, financially and administratively as being partially responsible for spate irrigation system management in Gash Delta Agricultural Corporation in Sudan. WUAs were assessed using questionnaire, direct observation and focus group discussion. Accordingly, WUAs were categorized into very poor, poor, average, good and very good. The results indicate that technically and financially, WUAs in Gash Delta Agricultural Corporation are poor. Administratively, WUAs classified as average. The results also indicated that WUAs located in the upper spate system perform better than that located in the middle system. The study was based on an innovative idea of giving stakeholders part in development of the assessment criteria as it is the first study assessing WUAs in Gash spate irrigation systems in Sudan.

 

published in International Journal of Sudan Research (IJSR) Vol. 4 No. 2, 2014

  • A challenge of sustaining water supply and sanitation under growing population: A case of the Gezira State, Sudan

The challenge of securing future water supply and sanitation services for an increasing population requires continued efforts to satisfy the future needs. This paper focuses on water availability and sanitation services under growing population taking Gezira State, Sudan, as the case. Future projection of the population was predicted based on the 2.2% growth rate. Data on water sources, quantities and sanitation was collected from Gezira State Water Corporation and various health and educational reports. The results calculated that the population is increasing by 14% from 2008 to 2014. Water stands are the main source of water in Gezira and yields 84% of the available water. The current consumption rates are 22.5 and 55 Liter per capita per day for rural and urban population, respectively. There is a gab in rural water supply and is expected to increase rapidly by 2025. Sanitation coverage in the state is 80% in schools and 88% in health facilities. The study recommended construction of new water sources to satisfy the rural consumption.

published in International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering

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