النشر العلمي

  • Speed of Light and Momentum within the Frame Work of Generalized Special Relativity

In this work generalized special relativity is utilized to obtain an
energy expression satisfying the Newtonian limit and explaining the
gravitational red shift . The speed of light in gravity is found to be that
of free space useful expression for momentum in the gravitational
field.

published in University of Africa Journal of Sciences

  • Measurements of Heat Capacity from Lattice Vibrations of Solids by Using Debye Model

Heat capacity is a measurable physical quantity that
characterizes the ability of a body to store heat as it
temperature changes, it is defined as the amount of
heat that changes the temperature of the body at the
given conditions. The objectives of this work are
the study of total energy of the phonon at
temperature T, heat capacity of solids and Debye
heat capacity model. The solid sample of metal
such as (Al, Cu and Fe) of weight 0.25 Kg in an
electric heater inserted completely inside a deep
hole into the metal and a thermometer inside
another deep hole. Both heater and thermometer
must make good thermal contact with the sample.
The metal was by an insulator. The theory of
specific heat in solids shows that specific heat
capacity for a material normally increases with
temperature, due to the change in substance
structure, more precisely, it depends on how many
degrees of freedom are available in the substance
particles, where a degree of freedom is a form of
energy in which is stored in the object. Results
show that, the average heat capacity of samples, at
different temperatures from are
(Al=982.1140 Cu =4740.3262
and Fe =241.9965 ), take the uncertainties
for the different measurements showed that
accuracy depended very little on the sample. All
though Debye heat capacity model is the best
theoretical model to study the heat capacity in
solids, modern research has revealed somediscrepancy in the model at low temperatures and
that Debye´s temperature is not a constant, but
varies with temperature.

published in discrepancy in the model at low temperatures and that Debye´s temperature is not a constant, but varies with temperature.

  • DETERMINATION OF ENERGY GAP OF ZINC OXIDE (ZNO) BY ELECTRIC METHOD OF DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE

In this study, put a sample of zinc oxide in electric circuit, circuit consists of a power supply, ammeter and
voltmeter. Fifty (50) readings for voltage(mV ) and current(mA ) are taken. A graph relating the current to the voltage is
drawn for zinc oxide sample. It was found that for zinc oxide the current increases abruptly at about (0.5 and 4.1) Volt.
The value of the energy gap of zinc oxide by using this electrical method (3.59 to 2.89) eV . This method is effective in
the calculation of the energy gap for some semiconductors and solid materials. Exposure of these samples to the heat
increases the current which agrees with the fact that heat increases electron velocity. The exposures of samples to the high
temperature decrease the energy gap which agrees with some works.

published in International Journal of Physics and Research (IJPR)

  • THE EFFECT OF SPEED AND POTENTIAL ON TIME, MASS AND ENERGY ON THE BASIS NEWTON AND RELATIVITY PREDICTION

The nature of time, mass, and energy, and the effect of speed and potential field on them was experimentally tested.
These experiments show that the time, mass, and energy are affected by both speed and potential.
Newtonian mechanics shows that only energy is affected by speed and potential. Thus it is in direct conflict
with experiments that shows the effect of speed and potential on time and mass. However special relativity shows
the effect of speed on time, mass, and energy but does not recognize the effect of potential on them.
But generalized special relativity shows that time, mass, and energy are affected by velocity as well as field
potentials. Fortunately the theoretical relations agree with the empirical ones.

published in INTERNATIONALJOURNALOFENGINEERING SCIENCES&MANAGEMENT

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