النشر العلمي

  • Investigations of molluscicidal activity of certain Sudanese plants used in folk medicine

published in Planta Medica,

  • Impact of Water Mangement Activities on Rural Poverty Alleviation with Reference to Gash Scheme

Poverty alleviation is an essential issue for development process, and it is considered as one of UN millennium development goals (MDGs), there is worldwide agreement on the role of poverty alleviation as target of development policies and strategies particularly for country like Sudan, which has high poverty incidences in rural and urban areas. This research aimed at investigating the contribution of agricultural water management activities on rural poverty alleviation in Sudan: with reference to Gezira and Kassala states. The research depended on primary data collected by means of a questionnaire distributed to a sample contained 520 respondents in the study areas divided  into two categories members of water user associations and non members.  Also it measured the level of  water poverty  and predict the households who can escape poverty line according certain characteristics in both states. The results showed that, the level of water poverty in Kassala state is greater than Gezira state, which were estimated at 33 and 52, respectively. The results confirmed that in both study areas the farmers who are  members of water user associations have a better chance to escape poverty line than non members, the households headed by literate persons have a better chance to escape poverty than the households headed by illiterate persons. The households who have the main basic services like electricity and toilet have a better chance to escape poverty than those who have no services.

published in Gezira Journal of Economic and Social Sciences

  • Factors Affecting Natural Regeneration and Distribution of trees Species in El-Nour Natural Forest Reserve

The present study was conducted in El-
Nour Natural Forest Reserve to assess the effects of
lightning, winds, illicit cutting and overgrazing as
unfavorable factors affecting the natural regeneration
in addition to tree species diversity in El-Nour Natural
Forest Reserve. For data collection and depending on
species and soil types more than 200 samples (205) were
taken covering the whole forest area. In each sample
plot, diameters at breast height over bark (dbh) were
measured for all mature trees by using tree caliper and
diameter tape for large trees (more than 95cm), and
total tree height (h) for the largest four trees by using
Suunto Clinometer. Damages by man, wind, lightening,
domestic animals, insects and diseases were also
monitored, counted and recorded in each sample plot.
The collected data were analyzed using Computer
Packages SPSS 16, past program and Microsoft Excel of
Office 2013. Average of diameter at breast height (dbh),
height (h), basal area (b) and volume (V) were
calculated as well as relative frequency (RF), relative
abundance (RA) and relative dominance (RD) for each
species. Scattered plots and trend graphs were fitted to
examine the effect of different selected agents on the
natural regeneration and distribution of tree species in
this forest. The occurrence of species within a sampled
area shown a considerable variation where relative
frequency change in descending order for the following
species, Acacia seyal var seyal, Combretum
hartmannianum, Terminalia laxiflora, Terminalia
brownii, Sterculia setigera, Anogeissus leiocarpus,
Sterculia africana and Acacia seyal var fistula
respectively. Man represents the most damaging agent
for most trees particularly those used for charcoal
production as it represent a source of income
generation. Lightening and winds damaged mainly
Combretum hartmannianum, Anogeissus leiocarpus,
Sterculia africana and Sterculia setigera as tallest trees
in the forest. The severity of damages caused by animal
and insects were less than that of former agent,
however, it alter the new regeneration in the forest
floor. One of the important new finding of the study
was the crown damage (new shoot removal) of Sterculia
setigera and Sterculia africana as fodder for domestic
animals. This new deviation may referred to the obvious
increase in domestic animals around the forest as well
as, the considerable numbers of nomads that passing
through the forest and sometime camping inside the
forest for many days and damaged it stock. The study
recommends that, intensive awareness program for
local people around the forest is necessary to reduce this
increasable pressure on the forest, as well the
participation of local people in forest activities. Also
some damaged compartments in the forest should be
fenced against domestic animals to facilitate the natural

published in Journal of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies

  • Causes of Bank Erosion of Wadi Kaja Basin – West Darfur State – Sudan

Bank erosion of Wadi Kaja is a serious
problem in Geniena City; West Darfur State since 1996,
where the wadi has undergone a considerable bank
erosion (Haddam) and stream channel instability
coupled with dramatic flooding events every rainy
season. The study was carried out in 2015 to find out
the main causes of bank erosion of this Wadi. It was
done in three phases: pre field work, field work, and
post field work. In the pre field phase, background
information about the location, land use, physical
characteristics, and vegetation cover of the Wadi basin
and catchment area were collected using different
official records and libraries. In the field work phase,
land survey was done along the Wadi banks in the city
and the observations, information, and interviews were
taken to show the severity of bank erosion and the
current situation in the field, and in the post field work
phase, Remote Sensed data (Land-sat Imagery) and
Geographical Information System Technique (GIS) was
applied to find out the main causes of the bank erosion
over the period of 26 years (1987 - 2013). By processing
and analyzing the RS and GIS data, the study finds
that, the main cause of bank erosion of the Wadi area is
the changes in the watershed areas and the tributaries
of the Wadi which might be caused by human activities
mainly illegal felling and overgrazing, as well as the
degradation of the Wadi basin itself. It concluded that,
the area is under a real hazard of land degradation
which might lead to ecological damage and biodiversity
loss. Without sustainable planning and management of
soil and watershed areas, as well as the protection of
eroded banks, the whole city will be washed out and the
area will be converted to desert by the action of water
and wind erosion.

published in Journal of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies

  • Land Use/ Land Cover Change Detection Due to Urbanization, Case of Study - Southern part of Khartoum.

Overpopulation has become obsessed haunt the whole
world, especially in developing countries due to
continuous migration from rural areas to large cities and
towns, as a result, these cities have greatly expanded and
extended in all directions to accommodate those
newcomers, this expansion has been at the expense of
vegetation cover. In this study, Khartoum city also
underwent a considerable population growth during the
last decades, as a result, a part of the green belt South of
Khartoum has been chopped down and converted into
residential areas, e.g. Jabra district, Abuadam district,
Al Azhari district, etc. This study aimed to point out the
effect of urbanization on vegetation cover of Khartoum
city using Remote Sensed and GIS data as integrated
tools for land use change and land transformation over
39 years (1972 – 2011). Satellite images were obtained
from the USGS Global web site as the main data for
interpretations to create land cover maps of the study
area and to locate the location. Three false colour
composite (FCC) subsets images from Landsat TM and
ETM+ were used in this study. An image of 1972 was
enhanced by a Thematic Mapper (TM), while the 2006
and 2011 images were Enhanced using Thematic Mapper
Plus (ETM+). Landsat TM 1972 was used as a reference
image, while the images ETM+ 2006 and 2011 were used
to assess the change detection. ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2
and Arc 9.3 software were used as the processing and
analyzing tools; whereas ERDAS software is used in
obtaining multi-spectral classifications. The results show
that there is a significant decrease of vegetation from
29% in the 1972 to 8% in 2006, bare land decreased
from 20% to 2%; while urban areas increased from 47%
in 1972 to 85% in 2006, in addition to an insignificant
increase in water bodies. The study concluded that RS
and GIS are effective tools to assess land use land cover
change, which revealed that: the Southern part of
Khartoum shows a remarkable land cover change due to
urbanization that will seriously endanger the whole state
if no serious attempts or preventive measure were taken
to mitigate its effect on vegetation cover, which in turn
will affect the climate, because one of the main causes of
the climate change is deforestation.

published in Journal of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies

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