النشر العلمي

  • Oil and Azadirachtin contents of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed kernels collected from trees growing in different habitats in Sudan

 

This study aimed to quantify and evaluate the level of Azadirachtin in neem seed kernel from ten ecotypes in Sudan over two seasons and establish relationship to the agro-ecological attributes. Extraction was done in two replicates using 12 g. After extraction, separation and concentration to 10 ml the samples quantified using HPLC.  Neem trees growing in different habitats in Sudan showed variations in Azadirachtin (Az)- content depending on the climate, rainfall, soil type, latitude and altitude. The Az-content ranged from 1.08 - 2.3 mg/g of the seed kernel in the first season and from 0.48 - 3.09 mg/g in the second season. The average content of neem oil was 44.6% in the neem seed kernel (NSK); no variation was found between these regions in oil- content. Trees growing in regions with moderate climate, average rainfall of 400 mm, and altitude of > 470 m above sea level, proved to be rich in Az- content. However, trees growing in lower altitudes, alluvial or sandy soil, with hot climate reflected very low Az- content. Rainfall was found to be the major factor affecting the level of Az in NSK, and the optimal rainfall was 717 mm. Temperature and relative humidity had no direct effect on the Az-content. However, the combination of temperature and the rainfall showed a positive correlation with the Az level in NSKs. Latitude and altitude have direct effect on Az level. Seasonal variations were clear over the two seasons, and no relationship was found between the two seasons.

Key words: Neem, Azadirachtin, ecotypes, ecological variations, Sudan.

 

 

 

published in Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci.

  • Evaluation of some insecticides for the control of sesame webworm, Antigastra catalaunalis, (Dup.) under Gedarif rainfed conditions

A study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of some insecticides against sesame webworm, Antigastra catalaunalis on sesame crop and to determine the appropriate time and frequency of insecticide application (insecticide application schedule). It was carried out for two seasons 2006/07 and 2007/08 at the northern area of Gedarif State (Gadambalia area), Sudan with seven treatments four replications. The treatments were malathion 5% WP 0.75 kg/fedd, malathion 5% WP 0.50 kg/fedd, malathion 5% WP 0.25 kg/fedd, malathion 57% EC at rate 1.016 L/F, bifenthrin (Talstar) EC  0.15 lit/fedd and fenpropthrin (Danitol) 20% 0.25 lit/fedd. Among the treatments evaluated bifenthrin and fenpropthrin are found effective against sesame web worm in terms of reduction in mean number of larvae and increase in mean number of flowers after one week of treatment and yield. All the treatments were found significantly superior to untreated check.

published in Journal of Basic and Applied Research International

  • Relationship between some selected soil fertility characteristics and witchweed (Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth.) growth performance

   Field surveys and laboratory analysis were conducted during season 2009/2010 to investigate the relationship between Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth infestation and some selected soil characteristics in the Sudan. Field surveys were carried out during the rainy season in Striga endemic areas in Eastern, Central and Western Sudan. Five locations were selected at random in each area. Galabat, Samsam, Gadarif, Butana and El Fau in Eastern Sudan, Hasaheisa, Abu-Haraz, Hag-Abdalla, Barakat and Wad-Rabia in Central Sudan and Um-Rawaba, El-Rahad, Kadugli, Khour-Tagat and El Obied in Western Sudan, making in total 15 locations. At harvesting time, some soil characteristics and Striga hermonthica attributes were measured. The laboratory analysis of soil was done at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira, Sudan. Data were subjected to correlation and regression analysis. The results revealed that, Striga population density, height, number of leaves, number of internodes and shoot dry weight were negatively (r = – 0.99 to – 0.7) correlated to the soil pH, nitrogen, available phosphorous and exchangeable potassium, respectively. In contrast, they were positively correlated (r = 0.89 - 0.97) to the total carbon. These findings showed clearly the relationship between soil fertility characteristics and S. hermonthica growth parameters that could be used to develop successful management strategy of the parasite in different type of soils.

published in Sudanese Journal of Agricultural Sciences

  • Strategies to adapt climate change impact on traditional rain fed a agriculture in semi arid regions: A case from Sudan

The purpose of this paper is to develop agricultural and water management strategies to help poor traditional rain fed farmers to adapt climate change impact on agriculture in North Kordofan region in Sudan. Historic climate data from the study area were collected and analyzed using CROPWAT model version 8.0. Reference Evapotranspiration (ETo), effective rainfall and irrigation requirements to develop different sowing dates strategy were also measured using CROPWAT model. Field visits observations and discussion with farmers also helped the author in results justifications. The study found that an early sowing date is better than late sowing in traditional rain fed sector in North Kordofan. Early sowing date secured water for almost 70 days of the crop cycle. Also under early sowing dates, soil moisture can maintain the crop at a later stage of growth. The paper investigated that drought tolerant Sesame crop replaced the millet crop for climate adaptation purposes in North Kordofan. This research is the first to develop agricultural and water management strategies to cope with climate change impact on traditional rain fed agriculture in North Kordofan, Sudan. The paper highlights innovations farmers are making to adjust to the changes they observe.

published in (International Journal of Sudan Research (IJSR

  • دور الأنشطة المدرسية اللاصفية في تحقيق الاتزان الانفعالي وتعزيز الشعور بالإنتماء الوطني لدى تلاميذ وتلميذات مرحلة الأساس بالمدارس الحكومية، ولاية الجزيرة، السودان، 2018م

هدفت الدراسة إلى التعرف على دور الأنشطة اللاصفية  في تحقيق الاتزان الانفعالي وتعزيز الشعور بالإنتماء الوطني لدى تلاميذ وتلميذات المدارس الحكومية بمرحلة الأساس في ولاية الجزيرة، استخدمت الدراسة المنهج الوصفي مستعينة باستبانة أُعدت خصيصاً لأغراض الدراسة، وتم اختيار عينة طبقية بالطريقة العشوائية البسيطة قوامها (500) من تلاميذ وتلميذات مدارس الأساس الحكومية بولاية الجزيرة، لتمثل مجتمع الدراسة. من نتائج الدراسة: للأنشطة اللاصفية دور إيجابي في تحقيق الاتزان الانفعالي وتعزيز الشعور بالإنتماء الوطني لدى تلاميذ وتلميذات مرحلة الأساس بولاية الجزيرة، إن دور الأنشطة اللاصفية في تحقيق الاتزان الانفعالي لدى تلاميذ وتلميذات مرحلة الأساس أكبر من دورها في تعزيز الشعور بالانتماء الوطني، أوصت الدراسة بتطوير الأنشطة اللاصفية بما يتوافق مع التقدم العلمي الاجتماعي والحضاري المتسارع. واقترحت الدراسة إجراء المزيد من الدراسات حول فاعلية الأنشطة اللاصفية في تحسين وتطوير الحياة النفسية والاجتماعية لتلاميذ وتلميذات التعليم العام.

الكلمات المفتاحية: الأنشطة اللاصفية، تلاميذ وتلميذات، الاتزان الانفعالي، الانتماء الوطني، مرحلة الأساس.

     Abstract:

     The study aimed to identify the role of extracurricular activities in achieving emotional equilibrium and enhancing the sense of national affiliation among the pupils of government schools at the basic level in the Gezira State. The study followed the descriptive method using a questionnaire prepared specifically for study purposes. A simple random and classified sample of (500) pupils of government basic schools in the Gezira State was chosen to represent the study population. The main results of the study are the following: Extracurricular activities have a positive role in achieving emotional equilibrium and enhancing the sense of national affiliation among the pupils of the basic level in the Gezira State. The role of extracurricular activities in achieving emotional equilibrium among pupils at the basic level is greater than their role in promoting a sense of national affiliation. The study has recommended the development of extracurricular activities in line with the accelerated scientific and social progress. The study has suggested conducting further studies on the effectiveness of extracurricular activities in improving and developing the psychological and social life of pupils in general education.

published in مختبر المسألة التربوية

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