النشر العلمي

  • Storage Stability of Some Insecticides in Common Use under the Sudan Gezira Conditions.

The use of pesticides in the Sudan started in the mid forties in the Gezira. Science that time the quantity was steadily increasing with the increase of cotton area. In season 1978/79 the total cultivated area was 540,000 feddans (F), and the average number of sprays per season 1987/88 was ca. $60 million. The stocking for the required pesticides is determined by the Pest & disease Committee. The committee normally recommends five spray/season, but caters for two more excess sprays as a reserve. Part of the stocked pesticides could sometimes be carried over into the following seasons. the study attempts to answer the questions of whether, how and to what extent the storage condition in the Gezira scheme affect the pesticides physical and chemical properties. Four commonly used insecticides were chosen for the study from the fresh stocks: Dursban 4 EC (chlorpyrifos), Decis 2.5% EC (Deltamethrin), Thimul 50% EC (endosulfan), and a ULV mixture of Thimul/Dimethoate 500/200 (endosulfan/dimethoate). They were subject to the different pre-specified storage conditions for one year. The same four insecticides were also chosen from the carried over stocks of the foregone season  that have already spent one air in storage in the open air. The latters were kept for another year in the open air. Sample from both the fresh insecticides and the carry over were drawn at regular internals to check if any changes in the physical or chemical properties have taken place. Treatment (1): indoors (shed storage for one year; (2): storage under open shed for one year; (3): Storage in the open air for one  year, and (4): Storage in the open air for two years. The methods of CIPAC were adopted to test for the physical properties. GLC was used  to test the active ingredient (a.i.) content. The study also included the determination of the water hardness of the irrigation water in the scheme as important for ECs application. It was found to be 83 ppm as calcium carbonate (i.e. soft water). Emulsion quality of Dursban have not changed significantly. Same observations were noted as far as specific gravity (sp. Gr.) is concerned. Water-content  and free acidity have considerably increased, and as a result, the flash point also increased. By the end of the 2nd year of storage in the open, the a.i. content decreased by 3.9%. the sp. Gr., the emulsion stability, and the a.i. content of deltamethrin did not show any significant changes under the different condition and durations. The water-content, free acidity, and flash point have increased during storage. Thimul behaved rather differently: the sp. Gr. And the emulsion properties have deteriorated; no remarkable change in the total endosulfan content. The deterioration is attributed to the increase in the free acidity.

The sp. gr. viscosity, and flash point of the ULV mixture exhibited significant increase during storage. There was a striking decreased in dimethoate content of this mixture (up to 10.3% one yr in open air). The deterioration reached 26.7% in dimethoate stored in open air for two years.

published in The Indian Agric. Research Center (ICAR), Delhi

  • تأثير شبكات التواصل الاجتماعي علي خدمات المكتبات العامة من وجهة نظر المستفيدين منها

للمكتبات العامة دوراً كبيراً في تقديم الخدمات المكتبية والمعلوماتية عبر شبكات التواصل الاجتماعي وقد هدفت هذه الدراسة إلي التعرف على  درجة تأثير شبكات التواصل الاجتماعي علي خدمات المكتبات العامة و التعرف على  درجة رضا المستفيدين من الخدمات المقدمة لهم بهذه المكتبات في ظل وجود شبكات التواصل الاجتماعي وأهم الخدمات التي يجب توفيرها بهذه المكتبات في ظل وجود شبكات التواصل الاجتماعي من وجهة نظرهم وقد أتبع الباحثان المنهج الوصفي بدراسة حالة مكتبة قصر الثقافة العامة بولاية الجزيرة - السودان ، والمنهج التاريخي. وتم توزيع استبانه للمستفيدين من مكتبة قصر الثقافة العامة بولاية الجزيرة ، وتوصلت الدراسة إلي عدد من النتائج من أهمها: الغالبية العظمي من المستفيدين من المكتبة العامة عينة الدراسة هم من فئة طلاب الدراسات العليا بنسبة 46%كما أن المكتبة العامة لا تقدم أي من خدماتها عن طريق شبكات التواصل الاجتماعي المختلفة و يعد تطبيق face book  من أفضل تطبيقات شبكات التواصل الاجتماعي بالنسبة للمستفيدين يليه في الأفضلية تطبيقwhat sap  ويوجد 40% من المستفيدين يقضون أكثر من 7 ساعات يومياً في استخدام شبكات التواصل الاجتماعي كما أن هنالك تأثير كبير علي وقت المستفيدين الخاص بالمكتبة والذي تم شغله بواسطة شبكات التواصل الاجتماعي بنسبة53  % من المستفيدين ،ومن أهم التوصيات : تصميم موقع الكتروني لتقديم خدمات المكتبة العامة عبر شبكات التواصل الاجتماعي المختلفة والعمل علي توفير أمهات الكتب والكتب الالكترونية الأخرى في شكل   pdfعبر شبكات التواصل الاجتماعي وكذلك إتاحة جميع المواد العلمية للطلاب عبر موقع المكتبة الالكتروني بشبكات التواصل الاجتماعي لحثهم علي زيارتها والاستفادة من موقع المكتبة عبر هذه الوسائل.

published in شبكات التواصل الاجتماعي وتاثيراتها في مؤسسات المعلومات في العالم العربي

  • Studies on Seed Germination and Seedling Emergence of Mesquite, Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC. In Sudan Gezira

Mesquite , Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC, was introduced in many semi-arid areas of Sudan to combat desertification and provide fuel wood and fodder. However, it spread rapidly into fertile, productive areas, and irrigation and drainage channels, particularly in some of the major irrigated schemes. Nursery experiments were conducted at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan, to investigate water uptake by seeds, germination-rate, sowing depth, acid scarification and animal feeding of intact pods on germination and seedling emergence. Pods were collected from town, or the National Tree Seed Center laboratory. Seeds were used immediately after extraction. Petri-dishes with filter paper or plastic pots were used. Treatments were arranged in CRB design, with 4-6 replicates. Data were subjected to ANOVA and DMRT. The results revealed that  the seeds have high ability to absorb water and exhibited high rate of germination, especially in the second wk after sowing (96%). Seeds placed on the soil surface failed to germinate, while those buried at depths of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 cm displayed 100, 75, 60 and 40% germination, respectively. Seedling emergence was delayed by deep burial and amounted to 100 and 50% at depth of 2.5 and 5cm, respectively. Seeds germinated and seedlings have  emerged at high rates (100%), when treated with sulfuric acid (60%v/v) for 5 min. they germinated and seedlings emerged normally, when extracted from sheep droppings.

Keywords  Mesquite, Prosopis Juliflora, Seed Germination, Imbibition, Seedling Emergence, Acid Scarification, Animal Feeding Effect.

published in Universal Journal of Agricultural Research 5(2): 159-163, 2017

  • Larvicidal activity of three plants powders and aqueous extracts on Anopheles and Culex mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae)

Anopheles and Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes are two of the major medically important pests in the Sudan. The present work objectives was to explore the larvicidal activity of local plants, viz. Nerium oleander L, Calotropis procera L. and Ricinus communis (khirwie) powders and aqueous-extracts of leaves and flowers of the first-two, and seeds of castor tested aganist 3rd and 4th instar larvae of A. arabiensis and C. quinquefasciatus, according to the standard methodes of WHO for rearing and assessment of mosquitoes susceptibility. Powder (3g) was suspended in 1L of tap water in a beaker (Replicate). Larvae (20/beaker) from both species were added separately to each replicate. Each treatment was replicated 3x, and the experiment was repeated twice. Mortality % was recoded after 24 hr. New set of 20 larvae was added to the same beaker every day after removing the previous group; the removal and addition was continued until 0% mortality was obtained. Regarding the aqueous-extracts, different concentrations were prepared from the tested morphological parts to determine the LD50 after 24 hr for both species. For A. arabiensis the effect of powders of Nerium leaves and flowers peresisted for 10 days with mean of 84% and 62%, respectively, while for C. quinquefasciatus the values were 10 days and 7 days, with means of 54% and 68%, respectively. Powders of Ricinus seeds peresisted for 8 days for A. arabiensis with mean 71% and for 8 days for C. quinquefasciatus, but with 58% mean.
 
Keywords: Nerium oleander L., Calotropis procera L., Ricinus communis (khirwie), Anophels arabiensis, Culex quinquefasciatus, mosquitoes, larvae, leaves, flowers, seeds, natural products, botanical insecticides
 

published in International Journal of Mosquito Research 2017; 4(4): 37-41

  • Mapping of anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in EnNuhud Town, West Kordofan state, Sudan Mohammed IM Ali, Nabil HH Bashir and Samira H Abd Elrahman

Climatic changes, especially rainfall, affect the distribution and densities of mosquitoes. This study was carried out to determine mosquito species composition and mosquito density, in addition to describing mosquito aquatic habitats in EnNuhud Town, capital of West Kordofan State, Sudan. A cross-sectional survey of Anopheline mosquito larval habitats was conducted in EnNahud Town (8 blocks/ sentinel sites) during July 2014 to June 2015. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique; while adults were collected using pyrethrum-sprayed sheet method. The habitats observed were broken pipes, bricks traditional factories (Kaminas), pools and swamps formed after rainfall. A total of 2,482 Anopheline mosquito larvae were collected. Of these, 2,449 (98.7%) were morphologically identified as Anopheles gambiae s.l , 33 (1.3%) as A. rufipes. A. arabiensis was found in all blocks. While A. rufipes, was found in one block (Algady block). The high mosquito larval densities indicated that EnNahud Town inhabitants are at risk of mosquito-borne diseases, including malaria. Therefore, malaria control program targeting both the immatures and adults should be enhanced, especially during the rainy-season.
 
Keywords: Mosquitoes, Anopheles, mapping, West Kordofan state, Sudan

published in International Journal of Mosquito Research 2017; 4(5): 01-06

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