النشر العلمي

  • Sudanese Withania somnifera: a potential control agent for plant microorganisms

For centuries plants have been used throughout the world as pesticides, drugs and remedies for various diseases. However, pesticides and drugs in general, tend to be very expensive particularly so for the developing countries. Comparative cost is often the deciding factor in choice of control methods. As a result it can be deduced that direct use of crude extracts or dried plant parts, where possible, would be of great value. This study aimed to evaluate the presence and the activity of the natural products in the Sudanese-chemotype Withania somnifera prior to their direct use as crude extract and/or powdered dried plant-parts in the field. The methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Withania somnifera (L) Dunal (Solanaceae) showed interesting antifungal activity against Fusarium nivale (syn Microdochium nivale) and yielded many withanolides after column and preparative HPLC separation which were guided by this antifungal activity (% inhibition zone). An equal volume of water was added to the concentrated methanol and partitioned with ethyl acetate. The active fraction was chromatographed first on a short silica gel (kieselgel) column. Using the chromatogram and a TLC single-spot analysis the collection was combined in 21 fractions. Then, the active Fraction(s) was re-chromatographed on gel exclusion over sephadex LH-20 in a long column. The active subfractions were then subjected to preparative reversed phase HPLC (Waters 600, multisolvent system) and all tubes were collected in 10 subfractions. The active subfractions were then subjected to preparative reversed phase HPLC (Waters 600, multisolvent system) and each peak was collected manually and, the purified active peaks were then subjected to identification. The structures of Withaferin A and 2, 3-deoxy 3methoxy Withaferin A were determined by NH3-DCI-MS (and MS-MS) and NMR spectroscopy. Against Swiss mice Mus musculus (mouth injection using adaptable syringe) these products showed no acute toxicity up to 20 g plant/kg body weight (the highest dose used). It could be concluded that there are many encouraging aspects regarding the potential for a direct use of such crude extract and powdered dried plant-parts against such plant microorganisms under Sudanese environmental conditions: this plant is widely distributed in Sudan, very rich in withanolides, and the quantity is sufficient e.g. the quantity of withaferin A was estimated in the present work to be more than 40 mg/kg plant material. Additionally, this concentration may indicate that the amount of plant material required would not be high. Furthermore, the preparation of the crude-extract or the powdered form would not be expensive. Moreover, in this study no acute toxicity was recorded up to 20 g plant/kg body weight (the highest dose used). In the foreseeable future, further research is needed to determine activities against broader spectrum of plant local causal organism strains of fungi and bacteria both in the laboratory and the field, the ideal formulation and concentrations for field application.

Pendant des siècles, les plantes ont été utilisées à travers le monde comme pesticides, médicaments et remèdes pour différentes maladies. Cependant, les pesticides et les médicaments en général, ont tendance à être très coûteux, particulièrement pour les pays en développement. La comparaison des coûts est souvent le facteur décisif dans le choix des méthodes de contrôle. Par conséquent, on peut déduire que l’utilisation directe des extraits bruts ou des parties de plantes séchées, lorsque cela est possible, serait d’une grande valeur. Cette étude visait à évaluer la présence et l’activité des produits naturels dans les types chimiques Soudanais de Withaniasomnifera avant leur utilisation directe comme extrait brut et / ou poudre sechée et parties des plantes dans le domaine. L’extrait méthanolique des parties aériennes de Withaniasomnifera (L) Dunal (Solanacées) a montré une activité antifongique intéressante contre le Fusariumnivale (synMicrodochiumnivale) et a produit de nombreux withanolides après la colonne et la préparation à la séparation HPLC qui ont été guidés par cette activité antifongique (zone d’inhibition de l’%). Un volume égal d’eau a été ajouté au méthanol concentré et partagé avec de l’acétate d’éthyle. La fraction active a été Chromatographiée sur une première colonne de gel de silice courte (gel de silice). En utilisant du chromatogramme et une analyse TLC tâche unique, la collecte a été combinée dans 21 fractions. Ensuite, la fraction (s) active a été de nouveau soumis à une Chromatographie sur du gel d’exclusion sur Sephadex LH-20 dans une longue colonne. Les sous-fractions actives ont été ensuite soumises à une HPLC en phase inverse préparatoire (Waters 600, système Multi-solvant) et tous les tubes ont été prélevés dans 10 sous-fractions. Les sous-fractions actives ont été ensuite soumises à une HPLC en phase inverse préparatoire (Waters 600, système Multi-solvant) et chaque pic a été collecté et manuellement, les pics actifs purifiés ont été ensuite soumises à une identification. Les structures des withaferin A et 2, 3-désoxy-3 méthoxy withaferin A ont été déterminées par NH3-DCI-MS (et MS-MS) et par spectroscopie de RMN. Contre la souris suisse Musmusculus (injection de bouche en utilisant la seringue adaptable), ces produits n’ont montré aucune toxicité aiguë jusqu’à 20 g plante / kg de poids corporel (la dose la plus élevée utilisée). On pourrait en conclure qu’il y a de nombreux aspects encourageants concernant la possibilité d’une utilisation directe de cet extrait brut et de parties des plantes ou poudre séchée des parties de plante contre ces micro-organismes végétaux dans des conditions environnementales soudanaises: cette plante est largement distribué au Soudan, très riche en withanolides, et la quantité est suffisante, par exemple la quantité de withaferin A a été estimé dans le présent travail à plus de 40 mg/ kg de matériel végétal. En outre, cette concentration peut indiquer que la quantité de matériel végétal nécessaire ne serait pas élevée. En plus, la préparation de l’extrait brut ou sous forme de poudre ne serait pas coûteux. De plus, dans cette étude, aucune toxicité aiguë n’a été enregistré jusqu’à 20 g plante / kg de poids corporel (la dose la plus élevée utilisée). Dans un avenir prévisible, d’autres recherches sont nécessaires pour déterminer les activités contre le plus large éventail des souches des plantes locales de causalité de l’organisme de champignons et de bactéries à la fois en laboratoire et sur le terrain, la formulation idéale et les concentrations d’application sur le terrain

published in RUFORUM Institutional Agriculture

  • Deadly Gastrointestinal Parasites as a Productive Hazard of Sheep

Sheep are susceptible to endoparasitic nematodes, roundworms, tapeworms, and coccidia which are very pathogenic [1]. This is suggested to be due to a combination of several factors such as climate, energy level of the diet, age, number of ingested larvae and sheep general health [2,3] reported that losses of livestock and income through death and condemnation of carcasses and viscera is the most direct and readily appreciated social and economic consequences of parasitism in tropical and subtropical areas. Helmithiasis, specially gastro-enteritis constitutes a serious cause of limitation to the productivity of small ruminants throughout the world due to the associated morbidity, mortality, cost of treatment and control measures [4]. In Ethiopian highlands, crossbreeding of indigenous Menz sheep with exotic Awassi sheep had problems of high mortality of the distributed rams due to internal parasites [5]. Gastrointestinal parasitic infection associated with reduced appetite, poor weight gains, diarrhea, and death [6]. Researchers have shown that poorly nourished animals are more susceptible to infection with parasites. This could be due to a lack of overall protein and energy or a poorly balanced diet, deficient in minerals [1]. Part of the severity comes due to the fact that many larval stages can survive for a relatively long period of time in the dehydrated stage and once moistened can re-hydrate and become motile again [7]. The female's extraordinary output of eggs is partly responsible for the explosive nature of outbreaks, especially in favorable weather conditions [8]. Trichostrongyles are associated with extensive damage to the duodenal mucosa and with signs of generalized enteritis, including haemorrhages, oedema and plasma protein loss into the intestinal lumen, and subsequent hypo-albuminaemia and hypo-proteinaemia [9]. The feeding and migratory activities of these parasites are direct causes of production loss, because they remove blood and nutrients and cause tissue damage. Cestode parasites cause disease through the development and space-occupying nature. Although, Edwards, (2005) stated that cestode tapeworm parasite, Monezia expansa, which parasitize sheep as its final host, passively absorbs nutrients from the intestinal digesta and has few, if any, adverse effects on productivity, It still causes production loss, due to the considerable cost incurred by its treatment and management. On the other hand, [10] stated that nematodes are more serious in the main sheep-raising areas [11]. Stated that sheep gastrointestinal infection causes severe reduction in daily weight gain and demonstrates awful food conversion. Gastrointestinal parasites could cause mortality, stunted growth, unthriftness and partial or complete condemnations of the carcasses at the slaughterhouses [12]. Parasitologists have mainly been concerned with understanding the biology of the host-parasite system. Parasites considerably and harmfully influence host life- history characteristics and vice versa [13]. There is unarguable evidence that parasites are progressively becoming resistant to all of the major chemical compounds used in the battle against them [14]. Repeated treatments to the same type of drench selects these resistant worms until they make up a significant proportion of the worm population [15]. This has obviously been necessary for the logical development of measures for the prevention and treatment of parasitic diseases. However, control procedures, based on epidemiological principles, have seldom been tested in the context of realistic systems of production [16]. In Sudan, it is difficult to practice the method of controlling internal parasites depending on rotational grazing [17]. Accordingly, helminth control depends completely on the use of anthelmintics. However, the efficacy of these drugs has been reduced, because of resistant nematodes strains [18,19] was the first scientist to conduct a search about injectable Ivomec which exhibited 100% efficacy against gastro-intestinal nematodes of naturally infected sheep in Sudan [20-23].

published in Drug Design Open Access Journals

  • Effect of Natural Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infection on Carcass Yield and Characteristics of Sudan Desert Sheep

This study was conducted to detect the effect of natural gastrointestinal parasitic infection along with age and level of energy on the carcass yield and characteristics of Sudan Desert sheep. Forty-eight lambs were divided into eight groups of 6 animals each and fattened for 60 days. A total of twenty four animals (3 from each group) were selected for slaughter at the end of the fattening process. The study revealed significant differences in slaughter weights (P < 0.05), carcass weights (P < 0.05) and carcass characteristics. Both hot and cold empty body weights and dressing percentages were significantly (P < 0.01) affected by internal parasitic infection and dietary energy level. Wholesale cuts yields and loin composition were not significantly affected by infection except for muscle percentage (P < 0.05).

published in SOJ Veterinary Sciences

  • Effect of Natural Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infection on Fattening Performance of Sudan Desert Sheep

Forty eight Sudan desert lambs were used in a-2 month fattening trial to evaluate the effect of natural gastrointestinal parasitic infection on fattening performance of old (2 years and up) and young (milk teeth) lambs fed isonitrogenous (CP: 16.11%) high (12.24 MJ/kg) high and low (10.35 MJ/kg) energy diets. Average daily gain, final body weight and total body weight gain showed a significantly (P<0.001) high differences. Infection along with low energy played a very important role resulting the worst performance plus high mortality. Significant differences were recorded in slaughter weights, the highest one was that of old lamb group, treated for internal parasites and given high energy diet (39.67 kg). It was 40.76% higher than the lowest treatment group which was the young infected given low energy diet. Empty body weight, dressing percentage and muscle percentage were (P<0.05) higher in the treated groups.


Sudan desert sheep; Natural infection; Gastrointestinal parasites (GP); Feedlot performance


published in Journal of Animal Sciences and Livestock Production

  • Effect of herbal formulation intake on health indices in albino Wistar rat model


Dyslipidemia management activity of ginger-, garlic-, and lemon-based herbal mixture was tested as paste and herbal extract in hypercholesterolemic adult male albino rats. Atherogenic diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats was treated by supplementing the diet with 2.5% herbal paste (4.2 g/kg b.w.) or 2.5 ml oral gavage (20 ml/kg b.w.) of liquid herbal extract daily for 42 days. Hematological and serological outcomes of herbal formulation feeding were compared with the cholesterol-fed positive control and normal control. The results suggest the significant (p < .05) inhibitory properties of herbal paste and liquid extracts against dyslipidemia showing 31%–37%, 62%–68%, and 40%–56% lower levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively. Treating cholesterol-fed animals with herbal paste and extract significantly (p < .05) increased total protein (5–5.5 g/dl) and serum albumin (3.7–4.2 g/dl) concentration as compared to the normal control. Contrary to significant hypocholesterolemic activity, higher serum total bilirubin levels, that is, 0.70 mg/dl, were observed in rats subchronically exposed to herbal paste and liquid extracts. Nonsignificant (p > .05) impact of herbal formula feeding was observed on hematological indices except lymphocyte counts, that is, 93% in rats fed on herbal paste. The results validate conventional hypocholesterolemic claims associated with ginger-, garlic-, and lemon-based herbal formulations; however, deeper insight into their dose-dependent response in hypercholesterolemia is necessitated to rule out the toxicological impact on the consumer.

published in Journal of Food Science and Nutrition

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