النشر العلمي

  • A challenge of sustaining water supply and sanitation under growing population: A case of the Gezira State, Sudan

The challenge of securing future water supply and sanitation services for an increasing population requires continued efforts to satisfy the future needs. This paper focuses on water availability and sanitation services under growing population taking Gezira State, Sudan, as the case. Future projection of the population was predicted based on the 2.2% growth rate. Data on water sources, quantities and sanitation was collected from Gezira State Water Corporation and various health and educational reports. The results calculated that the population is increasing by 14% from 2008 to 2014. Water stands are the main source of water in Gezira and yields 84% of the available water. The current consumption rates are 22.5 and 55 Liter per capita per day for rural and urban population, respectively. There is a gab in rural water supply and is expected to increase rapidly by 2025. Sanitation coverage in the state is 80% in schools and 88% in health facilities. The study recommended construction of new water sources to satisfy the rural consumption.

published in International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering

  • Screening of Guava genotypes for natural infestation of fruit flies(Diptera;Tephrtidae) in River Nile, Sennar and North kordofan States, Sudan

The infesting species and their infestation indices fruit flies were determined for guava genotypes(Psidium guajava L.), grow in River Nile, Sennar and North kordofan States during the period from June to August 2010. Twety genotypes were selected from each state to be evaluated, where ten mature fruits from each genotype were harvested randomly from insecticide unsprayed trees. Fruits were brought to the laboratorry and placed in individual plastic vials containing sand at the bottom to obtain the pupae. Infestation indices were estimated by means of total  number of pupae/fruit. Pupal viability was then calculated based on the percentage of pupae  resulted in fly emergence. Data was analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan multiple range test for mean separations. Resluts showed that Guava fruits were infested by four fruitfly specieces Ceratitis cosyra,C. quinaira, C. capitata and Bactercera dorsalis consititute(82.2%)(0.8),(16.7),(0.3%) and 28.35,0.01,10.1 and 61.56% in River Nile and Sennar States,respectively. While in North kordofan State guava fruits were infested by C. cosyra, C capitat and B. dorsalis 98.4,0.4 and 1.2% respectively. All the evaluated genotypes in River Nile and Sennar  States were infested by the fruit fly with varying degress only two genotypes 15 red flesh fruit and 19 white flesh fruit in Kordofan state were found free from fruit fly infestation. Infestation was much higher in Sennar and River Nile States(32 and 29 pupae/fruit)respectively compared to North kordofan(1.6pupae/fruit) .The higher infestation rate occured in ripe guava fruits(33) compared to18 and 6 pupae/fruit in mature green and immature green fruit respectively.

published in International Journal of Environment,Agriculture and Biotechnology

  • Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of jam and Nectar Processed from Some Sudanese Guava Genotypes

This research is justified by the need of using different Guava genotypes,in the region of Singa and Khartoum city for the processing of jam and nectar. The expermints were conducted during 2009/10 and 2010/11. Selection of guava genotypes was based on high yield and good fruit quality, that recognized by Guava growers and field survey. In the present study,various genotypes of guava fruits from Khartoum and Singa city were used in jam and nectar processing and evaluate their chemical analysis(pH,total soluble solids, total acidity and vitamin C) as well as the sensory analysis. The total soluble solids of jam that processed from both genotypes were in the range 66.8-68.8 brix. The acidity and pH of jam that processed from Singa and Khartoum was in the range 12.0-197.3mg/100g, while the total soluble solids were 1.8-5.4. Depend on the results of chemical and sensory analysis;its can be made of jam and nectar from these selected guava genotypes. Most panelists preferred the jam made using genotype Singa-2 and nectar processed from genotype Singa-4. Also most panelists preferred the jam processed from the genotypes Khartoum3 and nectar processed from genotype Kharoum7.

published in International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences

  • Physico-chemical Analysis of Fruits from Selected Guava(Psidium guajava L.) Trees Grown Under the Gezira Conditions,Sudan

Field surveys were conducted in guava private orchards around Wad Medani town(Hantoub,Gazererat Elfeel and Douneib)during November2006 to identify some of the superior guava trees.Nine guava trees were selected from these orchards according to their histroy of high yield and healthy vegetative growth,recognized by the growers. Fruits of these trees were harvested at ripe stage and analyzed for physical and chemical characteristics. Physical analysis consitsted of fruit weight,length,width,size,skin and flesh colour. Chemical analysis consisted of TSS%,total acidity and vitaminC. The study showed significant variation in almost all physical and chemical characters of guava fruits among different selected trees. The tree)Douneib-1) showed the higest vitamin C content(82.4mg/100ml juice) ,followed by (El Toum-3) (62.5mgl100ml juice),( Burae ) tree, recorded the highest TSS%(17). (Umdah)scored the highest TA(0.31g of citric acid/100ml juice) while Eltoum-3 registered the lowest TA(0.20 g of citric acid/100 ml of juice). Fruits of the selected trees showed different skin,flesh colour and size.Guava in the Sudan has high genetic variations because the only method of  guava propagation is seeds.The selected tree Douneib-1 was superior in its physico-chemical characeristics and its recomended to be propagated.

published in University of Bakht Alruda Scientific Journal

  • Seroprevalence of hepatitis E Virus among pregnant women attending Wad Madani Teaching Hospital, Sudan

Background: HEV is considered as one of liver diseases and other complications.
The mortality rate may reach up to 20% in pregnant women with each passing
trimester, making HEV infection the most severe hepatitis in pregnancy of all
recognized hepatitis. Pregnancy appears to be a potential risk factor for viral
replication and leads extreme low immune status of pregnant women. Hepatitis E
in pregnancy is also associated with high rates of spontaneous abortion,
intrauterine death, and preterm labour. Objectives: the objectives of this research
are to estimate the Seroprevalence of HEV infection among pregnant women and
detect IgG and IgM antibodies of HEV in pregnant women. Furthermore,
association between HEV infection and disease determinants like age and
different trimesters in pregnant women were investigated. Finally correlation
between infection and (age, parity number, history of abortion, consumption of
raw meat, and drinking of infiltrated water) and positive cases were also studied.
Materials and methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional hospital based
study. Ninety serum samples randomly collected from pregnant women attended
to Wad Madani hospital of obstetrics and gynecology were enrolled in the study.
The age groups of the study population were 22 (24.4 %) aged less than 20 years,
41 (45.6 %) aged between 21-30 years and 27 (30.0 %) aged more than 40 years.
also 30(33.3 %) had no history of abortion and 60 (66.7 %) had history of
abortion.
Results: 51 (56.7%) of participants diagnosed positive for anti-HEV IgG, while 39
(43.3%) gave negative results for anti-HEV IgG. On the other hand, 6 (6.7%)
showed circulating anti-HEV IgM in sera of examined women, while 84 (93.3%)
were negative for anti-HEV IgM. Liver function tests analysis revealed that only
ALP and AST were affected by HEV infection (P value 0.020 and 0.026
respectively). According to age groups, there was significant relationship between
Seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HEV IgM (P value 0.027). The highest
prevalence noted among age group 21 – 30 years (45.6%) for IgG and less than 20
years (24.4%) for IgM. There is little relation between the positive results with
biochemical findings. This study concluded that HEV was more prevalence in
second (24%) and third trimester (59%) than first trimester (17%). The study
recommended carrying out more studies and in large number of samples

published in Journal of Medical Biomedical and Applied Sciences

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