النشر العلمي

  • Design of a small-scale solar Dryer to Improve Natural Drying of Vegetables and Fish

This study aimed at improvement of a solar dryer based on the
principle of natural–convection used for drying vegetables and fish.
The constructed dryer, comprises of three main models, solar collector
(tent of polythene sheet collector), drying chamber and solar chimney.
Design has been made to eliminate the problem of quality loss and
over drying. Okra, Tomato, onion, fish were subjected to solar drying
and open – air drying processes. The chemical, microbiological
analyses and sensory evaluation were carried out for the dried
products. The results gives indication of improved quality for solar
dryer compared to products dried in open – air systems which
indicates its efficiency in drying.

published in Gezira Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences Vol7 No1

  • The Free Amino Acid Composition of The Sudanese Fermented Camel’s Milk (Garris)

published in Gezira j. of eng. & applied sci.4 (1) :43 – 51 (2009)

  • The Effects of Seasons, Age of the Animal and Storage Time on Physical Properties of Camel’s Meat (Camelus Dromedarius)

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age of the
animal and storage time on the physical properties of camel’s meat in
autumn, summer and winter seasons. A total number of 135 meat
samples from camels ranged between 1-9 years age were chosen. The
samples were analysed for pH, water holding capacity, oxidative
rancidity and color determination. The ultimate pH and water holding
capacity showed a significant difference (p >0.05) in different seasons
and storage periods. The rancidity and color determination of meat
showed significant difference (p >0.05) in different seasons, different
storage period and different age of the animals. The study concluded:
those different seasons had a significant effect on the quality of
camel’s meat, due to its effect on pH and water holding capacity. Age
of the animals had a significant effect on water holding capacity,
rancidity and colour, but it had no significant effect on pH. The
storage period had a significant effect on the oxidative rancidity and
colour that affect the shelf life of meat.

published in Gezira Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences ISSN 9556-1728 Vol 8No 1

  • Extraction of Pectin from Tamarind Fruits (Tamarindus indica L.) and its Utilization in Jam Production

In the present work, pectin was extracted from tamarind fruit pulp and used for jam production. The pectin yield in one kg tamarind pulp was 3.7 grams. The average chemical composition of tamarind pulp was: 5.44 % protein, 2.44 % ash, 18.21 % moisture, 1.99 ± 0.8% fat, 13.05 ± 0.7% fiber and 55% available carbohydrates. The tamarind fruit pulp also contained appreciable amounts of minerals as follows: 134 (mg/100g) sodium, 74 (mg/100g) potassium and 88 (mg/100g) calcium. The chemical, microbiological and sensory quality characteristics of the extracted pectin jam (A) as well as commercial pectin jam (B) were also determined. (A) contained: 8.5 % total sugar, 5 % reducing sugar, 67 % total soluble solid, 36 mg/100g sodium, (60 mg/100g potassium, 80 mg/100g calcium and had a pH value of 3.3. On the other hand, (B) contained: 12 % total sugar, 1.3 % reducing sugar, 68 % total soluble solid, 44 (mg/100g) sodium, 43 (mg/100g)
potassium, 64 (mg/100g) calcium and had a pH value of 3.5±0.1. Microbiological analysis of (B) had shown high levels of yeast and mould, however, the counts of yeast and mould was highly reduced in (A). The sensory analysis indicated that all types of jams were accepted by panelists who generally preferred (B) than (A) due to its appealing colour and flavour.

published in Gezira j. of eng. & applied . sci. 5 (2) :76 – 91(2010)

  • Antimicrobial Activity of the Extracts of Pomegranate (Romman) Plant (Punica grantum L.)

Many plants were found to synthesize substances that are useful
to the maintenance of health in humans and animals. Romman,
pomegranate (Punica grantum) has been reported to have some
antimicrobial activity. The present study was aiming to investigate the
antifungal and antibacterial properties of the Romman fruit peel and
flower extracts. The radial growth and the dry weight methods were
used for fungi, while, the plate count and the inhibition zone methods
were used for bacteria. Both fruit peel and the flower were found to
contain high amounts of tannins. The study showed that the extracts
were effectively inhibited mycelial growth and dry weight of both
Aspergillus niger and Penicillium italicum. However, the effect was
only significant at the higher concentration. On the other hand, the
extracts of the fruit peel were highly effective against bacteria. It
inhibited growth of both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and
Gram- negative (E. coli) bacteria, although, the effect was more
pronounced on the Gram- negative bacteria.

published in Gezira Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences Vol7 No1

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