النشر العلمي

  • CORRELATING ANNUAL MEAN RELATIVE HUMIDITY OVER SUDAN AND SOUTH SUDAN TO LATITUDES, LONGITUDES AND ALTITUDES

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Abstract

 

Annual mean relative humidity percentage for Sudan and South Sudan for the period 1961-1990 was obtained as normal data for 41 stations, and analyzed for correlations between relative humidity percentage on the one hand and latitudes, longitudes and elevations on the other hand. For the 41 stations, relative humidity decreased on average with increase in latitudes at a rate of about 0.93 % per degree showing a significant linear correlation (P= 0.05). With exclusion of 5 South Sudan stations, analysis for the 36 stations showed no significance of correlation between relative humidity % and latitudes. When 5 Red Sea coastal stations were removed, the relative humidity % dropped with latitude for the 31 stations at a rate of about 1.9%. Analysis for the effects of longitudes using the 41 stations showed very week, but significant correlation, (P=0.08). Longitudes showed a higher correlation and significance for the 36 stations, (P =0.002). In both cases the relative humidity increased with longitudes east ward. Altitudes on the other hand showed stronger linkage with annual relative humidity compared to longitudes and the correlations were all significant, where the relative humidity decreased for the 41 and the 36 stations at a rate of about 0.02% per meter above sea level while increased mildly for the 31 stations at a rate of about 0.01% per meter above sea level. The effects of the combination of both latitudes and longitudes and also latitudes and altitudes on annual relative humidity showed even stronger correlations, higher significances and lower standard errors compared to the single parameters while the combination for longitudes and altitudes gave lower significances and higher standard errors. On the average the highest correlations the lowest standard errors and the highest significances were obtained for the three parameters together. Over all, four equations were recommended for prediction of the mean annual relative humidity% in areas where no measurements are available.

 

Key Words: Correlation, Latitude, Longitude, Relative humidity, Sudan

 

published in Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 8(Suppl. 1): 826 – 834, 2015

  • CORRELATING ANNUAL PICHE EVAPORATION OVER SUDAN AND SOUTH SUDAN TO LATITUDES, LONGITUDES AND ALTITUDES

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Abstract

 

Piche evaporation in mm/day for Sudan and South Sudan for the period 1961- 1990 was obtained as normal data for 42 stations, and analyzed for correlations between evaporation on the one hand and latitudes, longitudes and elevations on the other hand. Excel statistical package was used for analysis. Data was analyzed for the whole of Sudan and South Sudan. For the 42 stations, evaporation increased on average with increase in latitudes at a rate of about 0.67 mm/degree showing a highly significant linear correlation (P= 4.95E-07). When the 5 Red Sea stations were removed, analysis for the 37 stations resulted in higher significance (P = 4.61E-14), and evaporation increased at a rate of about 0.98 mm/degree latitude. When 5 South Sudan stations were removed, the increase in evaporation per degree latitude for the 32 stations was 0.96 mm/degree, almost similar to that for the 37 stations. Analysis for longitudes using 42 stations showed week or no significant correlation with evaporation, but demonstrated three clear localized patterns two of which showed a strong correlation between evaporation and longitudes; a South Sudan almost flat trend, a western Sudan moderate slope trend where evaporation decreased at about 0.52 mm/ degree longitude east and a general steep slope trend where evaporation decreased at a rate of about 1.1 mm/ degree longitude. Using 32 stations for Sudan, longitudes showed once again the two different evaporation patterns; the western Sudan trend with almost the same slope and the general steep slope trend with also similar slope. Altitudes on the other hand showed no clear correlation to evaporation when all the 42 stations were considered. When the South Sudan and Red Sea stations were removed, the remaining 32 stations showed significant (P= 0.01) correlation with evaporation which declined at a rate of about 0.01 mm/meter above sea level.

 

Key Words: Piche evaporation, Latitude, Longitude, Altitude, Sudan

 

published in Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 8(3): 301 – 307, 2015.

  • Future Prospects of Camel Milk under Different Conditions in Sudan: As Source of Organic Food

The present study was designed to highlight the possibility of utilization of camel milk  as organic food. Camels are used traditionally as a source of food, in race and transportation of belongings when pastoral families relocate to new areas and also in fetching water to pastoral homesteads for household utilization. Camel milk is considered as one of the most valuable food sources for nomadic people in arid and semi arid zones and has been consumed; either fresh or fermented; for centuries due to its nutritional values and medicinal properties. In Sudan, most of camels are managed in traditional systems that include: nomadic, transhumance or semi-nomadic system and recently the sedentary or semi-sedentary systems and intensive production systems. A field survey was conducted in two production systems in Sudan. The first was the dominant nomadic systems that depend mainly on the grazing pasture, representing 40% of the total camel milk production in Sudan. The second was the new semi-intensive system that was initiated with the objective of commercialization of camel milk associated with harvesting of camel milk in pre-urban areas of Khartoum. The highest significant percentages of camel milk composition: protein, lactose, total solids, solids non fat, fatty acids and vitamins (A, E and C) levels were recorded for the camel in the traditional nomadic system compared to those from semi-intensive system. This paper recommended utilization of camel milk; especially from traditional systems; as functional and organic food. It also suggests ways to harness the potentials of dromedaries to ensure organic food and environmental sustainability..

published in Tropentag 2016 Conference

  • The Effect of Fabric Type and Quality on the Quality of Readymade Garments

The Effect of Fabric Type and Quality on the Quality of Readymade Garments

published in CTA 2014, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

  • Prospects of Textile Industry in Sudan (A technical Vision).

Sudan has been known in Africa with many
characteristics regarding its land suitable for
agriculture and the river Nile, making a
continuous irrigation source. However, in
regard of the textile industry, Sudan was
famous in producing different cotton
varieties and grades and the Sudanese cotton
was very famous worldwide with its high
quality. This initiated the earlier beginning
of textile industry which was first started
with some governmental projects followed
by the private sector. The raw material, in
fact, represents a high percentage of the final
product cost. Nowadays, textile industry is
suffering from many problems, facing acute
challenges, and becoming less attractive,
though it can be very attractive if these
constrains can be solved. This article
highlights the current situation of the
industry, the problems facing its
development, and proposing a technical
solution to overcome these constrains. It
also shows the opportunities for investment
in the traditional textile industry and other
related industries.

published in ). 2015 Sino-Africa International Symposium on Textiles and Apparel

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