النشر العلمي

  • Amylase Production on Solid State Fermentation by Bacillus Spp

Twenty bacterial isolates were isolated from different sources. Preliminary screening for amylotic bacteria was performed on starch solid media. Out of them; 11 isolates showed positive results when flooded with iodine solution. The amylotic activity index was 93, 95 and 99. Identification of all isolates revealed that they belonged to the genus Bacillus. Out of all, three strains of Bacillus designated as B1, B2, and B11 were chosen for further study; according to their saccharifi-cation activity measured with the DNS method. Optimum conditions for enzyme production were measured, using wheat bran solid state fermentation (SSF) method. The optimum conditions for the three strains were generally found to be 55%- 75% moisture contents ; not less than 48 hrs incubation time (72 hours max. ); maximum enzymes production was attained at incubation temperature of 30℃ - 50℃; although the amylase retained more than 89% of its activity at temperature ranging from20℃ -70℃ , and optimum pH of 3.5.Qualitative analysis revealed that glucose and maltose was produced by Bacillus strains, B11 enzymes from hydrolysis of soluble starch

published in Food and Public Health 2012, 2(1): 30-35

  • Impact of Halal and Non-halal Slaughtering on the Microbiological Characteristics of Broiler Chicken Meat and Sausages

The halal (permissible) rules of slaughter are based on Islamic law. The animal has to be alive and healthy, a Muslim has to perform the slaughter in the appropriate ritual manner, and the animal's throat must be cut by a sharp knife severing the carotid artery, jugular vein and windpipe in a single swipe. Blood must be drained out of the carcass. The main objectives of this study were to compare between the quality characteristics of chicken slaughtered according to Islamic rules (halal) and those slaughtered according to non-Islamic rules (non-halal). Twenty hydroid strains of broiler chickens were used and their weights ranging between 1.5-1.75 kg, these chickens were divided into two groups; the first group were slaughtered according to Islamic rule, while according to non-Islamic rule. Sausage was prepared from both types of meat. Microbiological methods were used to analyze chicken meat as well as sausage. The results showed that coliforms were not detected in halal chicken meat, while the non-halal meat contained 3.0 x 103 c.f.u./g. Moreover, the E. coli were found in relatively large number in non-halal meat (4.0 x 104 c.f.u./g) in contrast to halal meat which did not contain any E. coli cells. The halal meat sausage samples were not contaminated with either Coliforms, E. coli or Salmonella, while the non-halal meat sausage contained 15.0 x 105, 23.3 x 104 and 15.0 x 104 c.f.u./g of Coliforms, E. coli and Salmonella, respectively. It is highly recommended to follow the Islamic rule in slaughtering poultry and to apply hazard analysis and food hygiene to reduce the risk of cross contamination with foodborne pathogens in poultry farms.

published in Food and Public Health 2014, 4(5): 223-228

  • The Effect of Season, Age and Preservation on Camel Meat Sausage

The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of season, age of animal and preservation period on camel meat sausages. A total of 108 camels at different ages and 216kg of camel meat were used. The samples were also stored for 1, 2 and 3 months at (–18℃) during summer, winter and autumn. Sausages were prepared at the end of each storage period. The sausage samples were evaluated chemically and microbiologically and subjected to sensory evaluation at different storage periods. The results revealed significant interaction between the season, age and storage time. Oxidative rancidity of sausages and burger were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected by the storage time. Sausages and burger colour lightness (L), redness (a) and yellowness (b) were affected significantly with increasing storage time. Sensory analysis results of sausages showed that the sensory characteristics: color, tenderness, juiciness, flavor and acceptability were not significantly (p ≤ 0.05) different in all seasons among the groups during different storage periods. The total viable count of sausages stored at –18℃ for up to day 14 was decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) with increasing storage time. E. coli was detected all samples of sausages. It is highly recommended to utilize fresh or frozen camel meat in production of many products such as sausages.

published in Food and Public Health 2014, 4(6): 293-300

  • Influence of season, Age of Animal and Preservation Period on Microbial load of Camel s Meat

Meat is an ideal inhabitant for the growth and multiplication of microorganisms,
due to its nutritional constituents, which contain proteins, carbohydrates, minerals
and vitamins. The quality of the preserved meat is affected by the microbial load.
The present experiment was designed to determine the influence of seasons
(summer, autumn and winter), age of the animal and the preservation of meat in
different period (fresh, 1, 2 and 3 months) on total coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus
load of camel s meat. A total number of 180 samples from camels meat ranged in
live ages 1-9 years were examined. The initial count of total coliforms, E. coli and
S. aureus was low in fresh samples. However, the bacterial count increased due to
the preservation period, which is acceptable according to Australian standard. The
findings in this study indicate that, there is a significant difference at (p>0.05) in
the count of these microorganisms in the three seasons, whereas, low growth
occurred in winter. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) due to the age of
animal and preservation period. Moreover, low microbial counts were indicated in
old animals.

published in Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2014) 3(11) 869-876

  • Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Traditionally and Laboratory Made Ghee (Samin) of the Sudan

Samin is traditional cooking oil produced using the butter made from the milk of sheep , cow or goats.The objectives of the study was the determination of the physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of samin samples collected from local market, preparation of Samin at the laboratory level and evaluation its quality. The moisture content, acid value (mgKOH/g) , free fatty acids and peroxide value ranged 0.03 ±0.05% - 0.34+0.05%, 0.56 ± 0.0, - 1.94±0.17 (mgKOH/g), 0.28, -0.97±0.09%, 9.93 ± 0.23 - 2.60 ± 0.40 (mEq/kg) in the various samin samples. However, the saponification value, density, viscosity, melting point and refractive index of the different samin samples ranged 165.50-172.23(mgKOH/g), 0.925-913 g/cm³,0.519×10−3-0.335×10−3±0.02 pa.s, 38-37 Ċ and 1.4600-1.4582, respectively. The sensory evaluation revealed there was no-significant difference in texture, color, and overall acceptability of the samples, but there was significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in flavour, between LMS sample and the other samples. It is highly recommended to improve production of samin under controlled hygienic conditions.

published in International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering 2013, 3(1): 7-11

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