## النشر العلمي

- Hasabalrasoul Gesmallah Ismail Hmza. - حسب الرسول قسم الله اسماعيل حمزه
- published on 5/1/2016

- Measurements of Heat Capacity from Lattice Vibrations of Solids by Using Debye Model

Heat capacity is a measurable physical quantity that

characterizes the ability of a body to store heat as it

temperature changes, it is defined as the amount of

heat that changes the temperature of the body at the

given conditions. The objectives of this work are

the study of total energy of the phonon at

temperature T, heat capacity of solids and Debye

heat capacity model. The solid sample of metal

such as (Al, Cu and Fe) of weight 0.25 Kg in an

electric heater inserted completely inside a deep

hole into the metal and a thermometer inside

another deep hole. Both heater and thermometer

must make good thermal contact with the sample.

The metal was by an insulator. The theory of

specific heat in solids shows that specific heat

capacity for a material normally increases with

temperature, due to the change in substance

structure, more precisely, it depends on how many

degrees of freedom are available in the substance

particles, where a degree of freedom is a form of

energy in which is stored in the object. Results

show that, the average heat capacity of samples, at

different temperatures from are

(Al=982.1140 Cu =4740.3262

and Fe =241.9965 ), take the uncertainties

for the different measurements showed that

accuracy depended very little on the sample. All

though Debye heat capacity model is the best

theoretical model to study the heat capacity in

solids, modern research has revealed somediscrepancy in the model at low temperatures and

that Debye´s temperature is not a constant, but

varies with temperature.

- Hasabalrasoul Gesmallah Ismail Hmza. - حسب الرسول قسم الله اسماعيل حمزه
- published on 4/1/2015

- DETERMINATION OF ENERGY GAP OF ZINC OXIDE (ZNO) BY ELECTRIC METHOD OF DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE

In this study, put a sample of zinc oxide in electric circuit, circuit consists of a power supply, ammeter and

voltmeter. Fifty (50) readings for voltage(mV ) and current(mA ) are taken. A graph relating the current to the voltage is

drawn for zinc oxide sample. It was found that for zinc oxide the current increases abruptly at about (0.5 and 4.1) Volt.

The value of the energy gap of zinc oxide by using this electrical method (3.59 to 2.89) eV . This method is effective in

the calculation of the energy gap for some semiconductors and solid materials. Exposure of these samples to the heat

increases the current which agrees with the fact that heat increases electron velocity. The exposures of samples to the high

temperature decrease the energy gap which agrees with some works.

published in International Journal of Physics and Research (IJPR)

- Hasabalrasoul Gesmallah Ismail Hmza. - حسب الرسول قسم الله اسماعيل حمزه
- published on 3/1/2016

- THE EFFECT OF SPEED AND POTENTIAL ON TIME, MASS AND ENERGY ON THE BASIS NEWTON AND RELATIVITY PREDICTION

The nature of time, mass, and energy, and the effect of speed and potential field on them was experimentally tested.

These experiments show that the time, mass, and energy are affected by both speed and potential.

Newtonian mechanics shows that only energy is affected by speed and potential. Thus it is in direct conflict

with experiments that shows the effect of speed and potential on time and mass. However special relativity shows

the effect of speed on time, mass, and energy but does not recognize the effect of potential on them.

But generalized special relativity shows that time, mass, and energy are affected by velocity as well as field

potentials. Fortunately the theoretical relations agree with the empirical ones.

published in INTERNATIONALJOURNALOFENGINEERING SCIENCES&MANAGEMENT

- Hasabalrasoul Gesmallah Ismail Hmza. - حسب الرسول قسم الله اسماعيل حمزه
- published on 2/1/2016

- Deriving of the Length Contraction in the Presence of the Gravitation in General Special Relativity by Using a Light Clock

Generalized special relativity is one of the most promising models that is found to cure many defects

of special relativity. These defects include un capability of explaining gravitational red shift and satisfaction of

the Newtonian limit.

Despite these successes generalized special relativity suffers from noticeable setbacks. First of all its way of

derivation make it restricted to weak fields only. Although recent derivation make it applicable to fields other

than the weak and gravitational field, but this derivation needs to be strengthen.

In this work a light clock is used to derive a useful expression for time, length, in General special relativity.

These expressions are typical to that derived before by using curved space. Time, but they are not restricted

gravitational and weak fields. The expressions for time, length holds for all fields.

published in IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP)

- Hasabalrasoul Gesmallah Ismail Hmza. - حسب الرسول قسم الله اسماعيل حمزه
- published on 12/10/2014

- Determination of energy gap copper oxide by four probe methods

**In this study, on a four-probe, I put a sample of copper oxide, size (10x15x3mm ) 3
. Was used
Then, electric current is passed at magnitude 8mA at different temperatures in the range (29 -150 ) 0 0 . And by
taking 13 reading for the effort in this range, and using the energy equation, electrical resistivity has been found
for copper oxide and it has been utilized in determining the energy gap according to the general energy equation.
The value of the energy gap of copper oxide using this method (1.6 eV) was also found very close to the
experimental values. The difference in values is due to the presence of a small percentage of impurities in the
sample and this method is effective in the calculation of the energy gap for some semiconductors.**

published in International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology Research