النشر العلمي

  • 1 Tapping the Sudanese sorghum germplasm for drought tolerance Awad Elkarim A. Ahmed 1 , Abu Elhassan S. Ibrahim 2 and Ibrahim N. El zain 1

ABSTRACT

Two hundred and ten,

seventy four, twenty four and eleven genotypes of

sorghum were evaluated in 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004, respectively, under

full and partial irrigation at Gezira Research Farm, Wad Medani, Sudan.

The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block de

sign with

three replicates. The objectives of this study were to estimate the

variability and genotype

-

environment interaction. Significant differences

were detected among genotypes for the studied characters under both types

of irrigation in almost all se

asons. Stem borer damage was highly

significantly affected by watering regimes, however, partial irrigation

reduced stem borer damage. Genotypes PI 568329 and Yruasha had the

least leaf senescence scores while PI 569371 and Yruasha were the least

damaged b

y stem borer. Genotypes PI 563310 (5488 kg/ha) and PI 570851

(5452 kg/ha) outyielded the check varieties Yruasha (4596 kg/ha) and Wad

Ahmed (5434 kg/ha). The current study depicted that the variability

observed among the genotypes was maintained for most c

haracters under

both water regimes. Water stress reduced most of the studied characters but

increased number of tillers per plant, lodging and senescence which could

be used as selection indices.

published in Gezira Journal of Agricultural Science

  • Water Poverty and its Impact on Income Poverty and Health Status in Sudan: The Case of Gezira State, 1993-2013

Water resource development can address poverty, improve well-being, and enhance People's opportunities in different fields of life. Despite the fact that water resources are available in Sudan, some parts of the country still continue to face significant water provision challenges. This research aimed at measuring water poverty in Gezira State, Sudan over the period (1993-2013), using the methodology of Sullivan et al (2003). Furthermore, the research investigates the impact of water poverty on income poverty and health status in Gezira State. The research employed data collected from the Central Bureau of Statistics, Khartoum, Sudan. Both descriptive and empirical approaches are used to analyze the data. The average incidence of water poverty index (WPI) over the period under consideration is estimated at 41.8 %, which is quite high given the fact that Gezira State is endowed with huge water resources and capacities. Environmental problems are found to be the main contributor to water poverty in the State. The results also assert that water poverty significantly increases income poverty. In particular, a 1% increase in water poverty is found to increase income poverty by 2.3%. It is worth noting that agriculture is the dominant economic activity in Gezira State, for which water is of paramount importance for production, grazing, and agro-industries. Furthermore, the results reveal that water poverty significantly reduces life expectancy at birth.  The elasticity of life expectancy at birth with respect to changes in WPI is estimated at (-0.11).  The study recommends the adoption of better water use in various fields of development, besides solving the water supply problems, particularly in rural areas of the State, solving the environmental challenges that face water resources, enhancing institutional capacities for the water sector, improving the level of water management by adoption of effective water regularity systems, and encouraging water awareness programs through the different means of media. Investing in water and sanitation is highly recommended to generate rapid returns.

 

_____________________________________________________________________

 

* Associate Professor, Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Rural Development, Gezira University, Box 20, Medani, Sudan.

 

E -mail: abdelmawla2004@hotmail.com

published in المؤتمر الدولي التاسع حول التنمية في أفريقيا

  • Determination of Draft Power Requirements for Tillage Implements Under Central Gezira Clay Soil Conditions

Abstract

            This study was conducted to determine the draft power required for different tillage implements under central Gezira clay soil conditions. The experimental work involved five implements (chisel plow, moldboard plow, disk plow, disk harrow and ridger) which were tested at three speeds (3.5, 4.0 and 4.5 km/h) under two levels of soil moisture content (14.8% - pre-watered soil, and 4.2% - dry soil). A split-split plot experimental design with three replications was used. The draft power required, and the fuel consumed, by operating individual implement for primary tillage were measured. Moreover, the draft power, and the fuel consumed, for the operation of a secondary tillage implement (disk harrow) after primary tillage were measured.  Statistical analysis of the results showed that the required draft power and fuel consumption for primary and secondary tillage operations significantly increased with increased speed and decreased with increased soil moisture content. For primary tillage, the draft power required to operate the chisel plow was significantly higher than for the other tested implements, regardless of the operating speed and the soil moisture content ( the highest value of chisel plow draft power was 31.07 HP, which was found in speed 4.5 km/hr and moisture content 4.2 %); while the disk harrow draft power requirements were significantly the lowest ( the lowest value of disk harrow draft power was 14.82 HP, was found in speed 3.5 km/hr and moisture content 14.8 %). The fuel consumed by the operation of the chisel plow was significantly higher compared to the other tested implements, while the fuel requirements for the disk harrow were significantly the lowest. The results clearly indicated that pre-watering of soil moisture of 14.3 % before primary tillage, and operating the implement at a medium speed of 4.0 km/h, will significantly decrease the draft power and fuel required for both primary and secondary tillage operations

 

Keywords: Draft power, Fuel consumption, Tillage implement, Moisture content

published in Journal of agricultural and Veterinary Sciences

  • Determination of Draft Power Requirements for Tillage Implements Under Central Gezira Clay Soil Conditions

Abstract
This study was conducted to determine the draft power required for different tillage implements
under central Gezira clay soil conditions. The experimental work involved five implements
(chisel plow, moldboard plow, disk plow, disk harrow and ridger) which were tested at three
speeds (3.5, 4.0 and 4.5 km/h) under two levels of soil moisture content (14.8% - pre-watered
soil, and 4.2% - dry soil). A split-split plot experimental design with three replications was used.
The draft power required, and the fuel consumed, by operating individual implement for primary
tillage were measured. Moreover, the draft power, and the fuel consumed, for the operation of a
secondary tillage implement (disk harrow) after primary tillage were measured. Statistical
analysis of the results showed that the required draft power and fuel consumption for primary
and secondary tillage operations significantly increased with increased speed and decreased with
increased soil moisture content. For primary tillage, the draft power required to operate the
chisel plow was significantly higher than for the other tested implements, regardless of the
operating speed and the soil moisture content ( the highest value of chisel plow draft power was
31.07 HP, which was found in speed 4.5 km/hr and moisture content 4.2 %); while the disk
harrow draft power requirements were significantly the lowest ( the lowest value of disk harrow
draft power was 14.82 HP, was found in speed 3.5 km/hr and moisture content 14.8 %). The fuel
consumed by the operation of the chisel plow was significantly higher compared to the other
tested implements, while the fuel requirements for the disk harrow were significantly the lowest.
The results clearly indicated that pre-watering of soil moisture of 14.3 % before primary tillage,
and operating the implement at a medium speed of 4.0 km/h, will significantly decrease the draft
power and fuel required for both primary and secondary tillage operations
Keywords: Draft power, Fuel consumption, Tillage implement, Moisture conten
 2015 Sudan University of Science and Technology, All rights reserved

published in SUST Journal of Agricultural and Veterinrary Seinces

  • Induction of Flowering in Texas Early Grano Onion Cultivar Using Vernalization and Gibberellic Acid under Gezira State Conditions, Sudan.

Abstract: Field experiments were conducted at the research farm of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira,
Wad Medani, Sudan, during seasons of 2008 to 2010. Treatments consisted of vernalization periods, which ranged from 30 to 180
days, vernalization temperatures of zero to 14° C and gibberellin concentrations ranging from zero to 600 ppm. Results indicated that
vernalization temperatures of 4 to 5° C for 90 days or more was the key factor for the induction of flowering in Texas Early Grano
cultivar. Application of GA3 alone, without vernalization, at all concentrations tested failed to induce flowering. However, the highest
bolting percentage and seed yield were obtained by a combination of vernalization at 4 to 5° C for 180 days and the application of
GA3 at the rate of 600 ppm. It is recommended to vernalize bulbs of “Texas Early Grano” cultivar at 4 to 5° C for 180 days with the
application of GA3 at the rate of 600 ppm for seed production under Gezira conditions.

published in Int. J Sc.Res. Publications vol 5 issue 9, Sept. 2015::1-7.

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