النشر العلمي

  • Quality Characteristics of Laboratory-Made Mortadella Meat Product

Mortadella is a very popular ready-to-eat meat product in the world, used to prepare low cost sandwiches. In the present study, the quality characteristics of mortadella products prepared at laboratory level were investigated through the determination of their microbial characteristics, chemical composition and sensorial characteristics. Most of the chemical components were in close agreement to the literature values. The microbiological analysis depicted the low counts of microorganisms present in the processed mortadella (H) in count of total bacterial, coliforms and yeast and mould which were 6.68×105, 2.27×104 and 1.81×102 (cfu/g), respectively, and all samples were devoid of any Staphylococcus aureus. However, the commercial mortadella (C1) contained relatively high counts of total bacterial, S. aureus , coliforms and yeast and mould which were 9.90×105, 2.73×104, 4.55×104 and 3.41×103 (cfu/g), respectively. The sensory analysis revealed that an acceptable quality of mortadella product can be produced under laboratory level, The mortadella manufactured in this study was preferred by the panelists as well as the commercial mortadella samples. The panelists detected no significant difference (P>0.05) in appearance, color, flavor and overall-acceptability among various mortadella samples, however, there was significant difference when comparing processed mortadella with the commercial samples. It is recommended to encourage utilization of mortadella which must be produced under controlled conditions using standard methods.

published in International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering 2015, 5(2): 96-100

  • Formulation Of Quinine Sulphate Suspension

published in University of Gezira

  • Studies on Injectable Morin Hydrate Niosomal Nanocarrier coated with cell penetrating peptide and Hyaluronic Acid -N-Acetyl-Methionine for tumor Targeting

Morin hydrate (3,5,7,2’,4’-pentahydroxyflavone), one of the bioflavonoid has been identified in a number of fruits, vegetables, and herbs of the Moraceae family. Morin hydrate consists of two aromatic rings linked by oxygen containing heterocycles and several hydroxyl groups. Thus it can easily form complexes with metal ions as a result, Morin hydrate being used as analytical reagent for spectrophotometric and fluorimetric determinations of metal ions specially divalent and trivalent ones. Morin hydrate has the property of giving fluorescence either by itself or when forming metal complexes. The poor water solubility of Morin hydrate limited its use pharmacologically. Morin hydrate has neuroprotective action in Parkinson’s disease, induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinogensis model, and inhibits the growth of HL-60 cells and breast cancer resistance protein mediated transport. Morin hydrate also has dual action as a hypouricemic agent and xanthine oxidase inhibitor. On concurrent use, also has been proved to alter the pharmacokinetics of some drugs by improving their oral bioavailability in rats. In our current study Morin hydrate proved to inhibit the tumor growth of S180 tumor bearing mice.    

 The HPLC method for analysis of Morin hydrate in MH niosomes was established and validated. The linearity of the calibration curve for in vitro study was found to be in the range between 1 and 25 µg/mL and has a correlation coefficient (R2) value of 0.9999. The percent accuracy and RSD of repeatability found to be between 99.2 and 107.3% and less than 2%, respectively. For the in vivo study the linearity of the calibration curve was validated in the range of 0.5-20 µg/mL and the correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9998. The relative standard deviation ranged from 2.4% to 7.08 for intra-day precision and from 4% to 8.6% for inter-day precision.   

As our main aim in this study to build up niosomes coated with a polymer for tumor targeting, a novel hyaluronic acid derivative was synthesized by grafting the N-acetyl-L-methionine (analogue to L-methionine) on the backbone of hyaluronic acid using adipic acid dihydrazide as spacer. The HA-ADH-AcMet was characterized using DSC, PXRD, FTIR and 1H-NMR to confirm the conjugation between HA-ADH and AcMet. The degree of substitution of AcMet on the HA-ADH was determined using a previous reported method. The higher degree of substitution (6.5%) was used for further investigations and analysis.

In this current study we used a L9 (34) Taguchi Orthogonal Array (TOA) so as to screen and optimize the conditions for the optimal formula. The design involved four factors; amount of Morin hydrate, amount of non-ionic surfactant (Span 60, Span 80 and Tween 60), amount cholesterol and amount of dicetyl phosphate. Since the Morin hydrate niosomes evaluated in term of high entrapment efficiency, minimal particle size and required ζ-potential, the desirability function (DF) was used to assess the optimized condition in term of the stated conditions.  Since Morin hydrate known to be hydrophobic drug, Morin hydrate niosomes were prepared using modified thin film hydration method. A molar ratio of 4.75:4.75:0.5 for non-ionic surfactant, cholesterol and dicetyl phosphate, respectively, with total lipid concentration of 2 x 10-2 was considered as level two of our TOA. Level one and level three were set to be half and double of level two respectively.   The effect of different factors on MH entrapment efficiency was studied and has been evaluated using TOA as a tool for optimization and statistical analysis. As a result three optimized formulae of Morin hydrate niosomes were prepared and used for further investigations.

The morphology of the three different optimized niosomes has been characterized by TEM where their size found to be less than 200 nm. The entrapment efficiency of MH niosomes was found in the following order: Tween 60 > Span 80 > Span 60. Regarding the stability of niosomes at higher temperature, Tween 60 niosomes was the most stable one while Span 80 niosomes was the least stable. The higher in vitro release rate was observed with Tween 60 niosomes either in presence or absence of plasma with non-fickian mechanism of release. The results of molecular modeling study suggested that the binding between MH and HSA was not spontaneous. 

The pharmacokinetics parameters of the three optimized Morin hydrate niosomes were studied and compared to the Morin hydrate solution. The AUC0-8 showed 1.3-2.7 fold increase compared to the Morin hydrate solution. Morin hydrate Tween 60 niosomes showed the highest bioavailability among all others optimized niosomes. The highest clearance rate noticed with Morin hydrate solution followed by Span 60 and Span 80 niosomes, respectively. Accumulation of Tween 60 niosomes was observed in mouse brain with fluorescence intensity relatively high compared to others organs.

Due to the stability, in vitro drug release and pharmacokinetic study; MH Tween 60 niosomes was chosen for the coating stage. Two layers of coat were added using the layer by layer technique. The first layer is St-8Arg (stearated octaarginine), the second layer has two types: (1) hyaluronic acid and (2) HA-ADH-AcMet (N-acetyl-L-methionine modified hyaluronic acid). Several concentrations of the coated materials were used to obtain the optimized one in term of physical stability. Equal concentration (0.5% w/v) of St-8Arg and HA or HA-ADH-AcMet was found to be the most suitable one. The forming of the coat was affirmed by two methods: (1) the change in ζ-potential as it reflects the change in surface charge and (2) morphological observation by TEM. The EE%, particle size and ζ-potential of the coated MH Tween 60 niosomes were measured and listed. In vitro drug release study was conducted to study the effect of coating on the drug release and MH Tween 60 niosomes coated with St-8Arg-(HA-ADH-AcMet) showed no statistical significant compared to the uncoated MH Tween 60 niosomes. The release kinetics was also being studied and Weibull model showed the best fit in both cases. MH Tween 60 niosomes coated with St-8Arg-(HA-ADH-AcMet) found to have non-fickian release mechanism. In term of particle size MH Tween 60 niosomes coated with St-8Arg-(HA-ADH-AcMet) showed better relative stability.

The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodyanamic study of MH Tween 60 niosomes coated with St-8Arg-HA and St-8Arg-(HA-ADH-AcMet) was conducted. MH Tween 60 niosomes coated with St-8Arg-HA showed higher volume of distribution compared to MH Tween 60 niosomes coated with St-8Arg-(HA-ADH-AcMet) indicating the greater uptake by the organs. The pharmacodynamic study showed that MH Tween 60 niosomes coated with St-8Arg-(HA-AD-AcMet) giving the higher survival rate as well as good clearance of tumor nuclei on histopathology specimen. Both pharmacodyanamic and histopathology results confirmed the higher affinity of MH Tween 60 niosomes coated with St-8Arg-(HA-ADH-AcMet) towards cancer cells due to the targeting moiety present in their coat. The in vivo imaging study showed higher intensity of fluorescence associated with MH Tween 60 niosomes coated with St-8Arg-(HA-ADH-AcMet) after 4 hours on the excised organs and specially at the tumor site.  

published in China Pharmaceutical University

  • Prescribing Patterns of Anti-Diabetic Drugs in Khartoum and Gezira States

A cross sectional study was carried out through interviewing patients with the aid of a pre-tested questionnaire. Different drug core use indicators on prescription writing and patients’ services were obtained. Abnormal high prevalence rate of diabetes was observed (11.6%). The urban patients showed dominance. The pharmacy assistants were counted as major dispensers of anti-diabetic agents in Sudan (52.9%). The study confirmed the short time that is given to the patients by both prescribers and dispensers. The studied prescriptions were highly not conforming to the standard prescription writing that caters for an essential element which facilitates the patient-doctor link and hence highly influencing proper therapy. Glibencalamide was found to be the most prescribed anti-diabetic agent (70.2%)

published in Omdurman Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

  • Redox-sensitive micelles self-assembled from amphiphilic hyaluronic acid-deoxycholic acid conjugates for targeted intracellular delivery of paclitaxel

A targeted intracellular delivery system of paclitaxel (PTX) was successfully developed based on redox-sensitive hyaluronic acid-deoxycholic acid (HA-ss-DOCA) conjugates. The conjugates self-assembled into nano-size micelles in aqueous media and exhibited excellent drug-loading capacities (34.1%) and entrapment efficiency (93.2%) for PTX. HA-ss-DOCA micelles were sufficiently stable at simulated normal physiologic condition but fast disassembled in the presence of 20 mm reducing agent, glutathione. In vitro drug release studies showed that the PTX-loaded HA-ss-DOCA micelles accomplished rapid drug release under reducing condition. Intracellular release of fluorescent probe nile red indicated that HA-ss-DOCA micelles provide an effective approach for rapid transport of cargo into the cytoplasm. Enhanced cytotoxicity of PTX-loaded HA-ss-DOCA micelles further confirmed that the sensitive micelles are more potent for intracellular drug delivery as compared to the insensitive control. Based on flow cytometry and confocal microscopic analyses, observations revealed that HA-ss-DOCA micelles were taken up to human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-MB-231) via HA-receptor mediated endocytosis. In vivo investigation of micelles in tumor-bearing mice confirmed that HA-ss-DOCA micelles possessed much higher tumor targeting capacity than the insensitive control. These results suggest that redox-sensitive HA-ss-DOCA micelles hold great potential as targeted intracellular delivery carriers of lipophilic anticancer drugs
 

published in Biomaterials

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