النشر العلمي

  • Multicasting in Network mobility using Multicast Anchor Agent

Abstract— Multicast provides an effective group communication mechanism in IP layer to reduce the redundant packets transmission compared with the unicast. The knapsack problem is a problem in combinatorial optimization when we have given a set of items, each with a weight and a value, determine the number of each item to include in a collection so that the total weight is less than or equal to a given limit and the total value is as large as possible. This paper discusses 0-1 Knapsack approach to use by NEMO’s multicast agent (MA) to ensure the forwarding data to their destinations in combinational optimize selection manner, and acceptable throughput.
Keyword-Multicast Agent, Mobile Router, Remote Subscription, Tunneling, Knapsack Problem

published in IJET (International Journal of Engineering and Technology)

  • BIOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF HOME MADE FLUIDS AND THEIR ACCEPTABILITY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF DIARRHEA IN CHILDREN IN THE GEZIRA STATE, SUDAN

Tahani El Faki, MSc, Hayder E. Babikir, MD, Khalid E. Ali, PhD

Faculty of Medicine, Gezira University, Sudan
____________________________________________________________________
هدف الدراسة : تهدف هذه الدراسة لإعداد محاليل منزلية مفيدة ، سهلة التحضير لمعالجة الإسهال
عند الأطفال السودانيين بولاية الجزيرة وسط السودان .
طريقة الدراسة : المحاليل التي أجريت عليها الدراسة هي محلول الذرة المعروف بالنشا ومحلول
الأرز أو ماء الأرز . أخذت عينة من النشا و 10 عينات من ماء الأرز من المنازل وأجريت عليها
القياسات التالية : الأس الهيدروجيني و الكاربوهيدرات والدهون و الألياف و الرماد و الصوديوم
والبوتاسيوم والكلورايد .
نتيجة الدراسة : وجد أن كل من محلول الذرة ( النشا ) ومحلول الأرز ( ماء الأرز ) يحوي كميات
معتبرة من المواد الغذائية مما يجعل لهذين المحلولين قيمة غذائية . وقد وجد أن نسبة الصوديوم
والكلوريد أقل من محتويات المحلول المقترح من هيئة الصحة العالمية واليونسيف ، ووجد أنه يمكن
تعديل تكوين محلول النشا ومحلول الأرز بإضافة كلوريد الصوديوم ليشابه تكوين محلول الأرواء
5و 3 جرام كلوريد - بالفم القياسي المقدم من هيئة الصحة العالمية واليونسف ، ويمكن ذلك بإضافة 3
6و 2 جرام من كلوريد الصوديوم إلى – الصوديوم إلى لتر من محلول الذرة ( النشا ) وإضافة 3و 2
لتر من محلول الأرز ( ماء الأرز ) .
الخلاصة : نخلص من هذه الدراسة بأن محلول الذرة ( النشا ) ومحلول الأرز ( ماء الأرز ) يمكن
استعمالهما لمكافحة الجفاف ويمكن أيضا استعمالهما بعد إضافة كلوريد الصوديوم لمعالجة الجفاف
الناتج من الإسهال كبديل لمحلول الأرواء بالفم القياسي ، وسيساعد ذلك في حل مشكلة عدم توفر
المحلول مما يؤدي إلي خفض المراضة والوفيات بسبب الإسهال .
الكلمات المرجعية : نشا الذرة ، ماء الأرز ، الجفاف ، محلول الارواء بالفم .
_____________________________________________________________
Objectives: To determine the biochemical constitution of homemade fluids and
assess their acceptability and efficacy for the management of acute diarrhea in
Sudanese children.
Material and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 150 children selected
randomly. The fluids studied were 36 samples of sorghum-based solutions (nasha)
and 10 samples of rice water. Samples were randomly collected from households and
analyzed to determine the pH, carbohydrates, proteins, fat, crude fiber, ash and
electrolytes (NaP
+
P, KP
+
P and ClP
-
P).
Results: In addition to being very useful for rehydration, the two fluids were found
to contain considerable amounts of nutrients. The sodium and chloride contents of
homemade fluids were found to be much lower than those of the WHO/UNICEF ORS
(oral rehydration solution). These electrolytes can be adjusted by adding table salt
(3-3.5 g NaCl to one litre of sorghum-based solution and 2.3-2.6 g NaCl to one liter
___________________________________________________________________________
Correspondence to:
Dr. Hayder E. Babikar, Faculty of Medicine, Gezira University, Sudan
Journal of Family & Community Medicine 84 Vol.8 No.3 – December 2001
of rice water) to bring them to concentration comparable to that of the standard
ORS.
Conclusion: Homemade solutions can be modified by adding table salt to bring them
to the standard ORS and can be used successfully to prevent dehydration. This will
solve the problem of the availability of ORS and reduce morbidity and mortality from
diarrhea.
Key Words: Acute diarrhea, dehydration, sorghum gruel, rice-water, ORS, Sudan.
___________________________________________________________________________
INTRODUCTION
Acute diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity
and mortality in young children all over the
world. It is estimated that more than one
billion episodes of acute diarrhea occur
yearly in children in the developing world
including Sudan.1 In 1900, it was estimated
that 23% of all deaths of children under
five, in the developing countries, were
caused by diarrhea.2,3 A national survey in
1996 by the Diarrhoeal Disease Control
Programme (CDD) in the northern states of
Sudan showed a prevalence rate of 22% in
the two weeks preceding the survey.4
Orally administered fluids and electrolyte
solutions have been effectively used worldwide
to treat children with acute diarrhea.5
The physiologic basis for these solutions is
the transport of glucose and/ or other
organic solutes together with sodium to
achieve enhanced absorption of salt and
water.6
The impact of oral rehydration solution
(ORS) on dehydration case/fatality rate, and
cost effectiveness is well documented.7-9
However, many logistic and economic problems
limit the availability and distribution
of ORS to less than half the population of
the developing world.10 Besides, since ORS
does not reduce the volume, frequency or
duration of diarrhea,11 a frequentlymentioned
source of dissatisfaction for
mothers (and consequently for health care
providers), there is a persistent desire to use
antidiarrheal drugs and limit the amount of
fluids given to dehydrated children. Cultural
acceptance has often limited the use of
ORS. The WHO estimates that <25% who
could benefit from therapy are treated with
ORS.12 The rate of ORS use is only 31%.
One proposed approach for the
development of an improved ORS, is to
replace glucose, with glucose polymers e.g.
d. hexoses, L. amino acids and their di- and
tri- peptide forms.13 This makes it possible
to increase the amount of glucose in the
ORS formulation without increasing its
osmolarity.
The purpose of this research was to assess
some locally used, primarily homemade
fluids in the form of simple starch,
containing glucose and di- and tri-peptides.
These are readily available, easily prepared,
have no adverse effects on children with
diarrhea, and are culturally accepted by
mothers.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
This is a cross-sectional house-to-house
study. From Wad Medani (urban) and El
Meilig (rural), central Sudan, 150 children
aged 0-5 years, with diarrhea in the last 48
hours prior to the conduct of the study, were
recruited by systematic random sampling. A
questionnaire was used to determine the
types and amounts of homemade fluids used
for diarrhea, their methods of preparation,
their effect on the status of dehydration and
on the stool output, and the readiness with
which the fluids were accepted by the
children. The children were interviewed in
their own homes by physicians and faculty
 

Biochemical Assessment of Home Made Fluids 85
members of Gezira University. The informants
were their mothers. A sub-sample of
36 specimens of sorghum-based solution
(nasha) and 10 of rice water, the commonest
fluids used, were obtained at random from
the children's own homes, for laboratory
analysis. The number of sub-samples was
small on account of the limited resources
available.
"Nasha" is a thin gruel, prepared from different
varieties of sorghum flour. Approximately
130-135 grams of the flour is mixed
with 300-400ml of water, left overnight to
ferment, after which water is added to bring
it up to 1000-1200ml. The solution is then
decanted and boiled to a thin gruel to which
10 to 15g of sugar is usually added.
Rice water is prepared by soaking about
120-130g of rice in 300-400ml of water for
1 to 2 hours, and then manually crushing it.
One liter of water is added to it and decanted,
after which 2.5 – 5g of sugar is usually
added. Both solutions are administered
orally. 100ml/kg body weight is given
during the first 4 hours. The condition of the
child is then re-assessed and management
continues with breast-feeding if there is improvement.
If the condition has deteriorated,
the child is referred to the hospital for i/v
rehydration and resuscitation if necessary.
The samples were analyzed in duplicate,
to determine their pH, electrolyte content
(Na+, K+ and Cl-) and to proximate analysis.
The pH was measured using Philip's PW
9410 Digital pH-meter. Moisture was
determined by the vacuum oven method
described by the Association of Official
Analytical Chemists (AOAC, 1990).14
Protein contents were determined by the
standard Kjedldahl method. Fat, ash, and
crude fiber values were determined
according to the AOAC (1990) methods.
Sodium and potassium amounts were
determined by flame photometry using the
Corning 400-flame photometer.14 The gravimetric
method described by AOAC (1990)
was used to determine chloride contents. A
pschnometer or density bottle was used to
measure specific gravity. The means and
standard deviations were determined. More
accurate and sensitive quantitative methods
could have been used, but the methods used
were the only ones available to the authors.
However, the authors believe that the
methods used, despite their limitations, were
appropriate for the purpose of this study.
Improvement in the general condition of
the child is assessed by the duration of
diarrhea, stool consistency and increase in
body weight.
The SPSS package was used for the
analysis of data.
RESULTS
Table 1 shows the general characteristics of
the study group. Rural children comprised
52.7%, and urban children 47.3%. Those of
low socioeconomic status comprised 47.3%,
middle class 38.7%, and of high socioeconomic
status 14%. Of the mothers,
32.7% were illiterate.
Table 2 shows the types of early management
of diarrhea and their acceptability. Of
the mothers, 9.3% used the ORS, 75.4%
used homemade fluids (HF), 6% used drugs
and 9.3% used both ORS and HF. The
acceptability of ORS among children was
57%, compared to 100% for homemade
Table 1: General characteristics of the
study group
Characteristics No (%) Total No
(%)
Residence
Rural 79 (52.7) 150 (100)
Urban 71 (47.3)
Socioeconomic status
Low 71 (47.3)
Middle 58 (38.7) 150 (100)
High 21 (14.0)
Education
Literate 101 (67.3) 150 (100)
Illiterate 49 (32.7)
 

Journal of Family & Community Medicine 86 Vol.8 No.3 – December 2001
Table 2: Types of early management of
diarrhea and their acceptability
Variable No(%) Total No
Types of early management
ORS 14 (9.3) 150
Homemade fluids 113 (75.4)
Drugs 9 (6)
Combination (ORS+HF) 14 (9.3)
Child's acceptability
Homemade fluids 113
Accepted 113 (100)
Unaccepted 0
ORS 14
Accepted 8 (57)
Unaccepted 6 (43)
Drugs 9
Accepted 6 (66.7)
Unaccepted 3 (33.3)
Combination (ORS + HF) 14
Accepted 9 (64.3)
Unaccepted 5 (35.7)
fluids, 66.7% for drugs and 64.3% for a
combination of ORS and HF.
Table 3 shows some homemade fluids
commonly used in the state of Gezira;
42.5% used sorghum, 20.3% used rice
water. Other homemade fluids including
Gonglias "Adansonia digitata", Hilba juice
"Fenugreek", and custard were used by
7.2% and 15% used a combination of ORS
and homemade fluids.
Table 3: Homemade fluids used by mothers/
families in the state of Gezira (N=113)
Types of homemade fluids No (%)
Sorghum (Nasha) 48 (42.5)
Rice water 23 (20.3)
Sugar salt solution 17 (15.5)
Other (Gongolais, hilba, custard) 8 (7.2)
Combination (Nasha + RW) 17 (15.0)
Table 4: Comparison of homemade fluids with ORS effects
Types of fluids Stool output (%) General condition (%)
Reduced Increased No effect Improved Not improved
Nasha 52.1 27.1 20.8 62.5 37.5
Rice water 60.8 30.4 8.8 65.2 34.8
Sugar salt solution 35.3 42.2 23.3 52.9 47.1
Other homemade fluid 37.5 35.2 25.0 62.5 37.5
Nasha + rice water 52.9 35.3 11.8 58.8 41.2
ORS 37.5 42.9 21.4 78.6 21.4
Homemade fluid 68.1 18.6 13.3 80.9 20.0
Table 5: Chemical composition and some characteristics of different fluids
Chemicals/
Characteristics
Sorghum solution
(n=36)
Rice water
(n=10)
Standard ORS p-value
Carbohydrate (g/l) 80.37 ± 19.77SD 50.25 ± 12.67 SD 20.00 (glucose) 0.00004
Sodium (mmol/l) 37.37 ± 3.50 SD 51.74 ± 4.50 SD 90.00 <0.0001
Potassium (mmol/l) 11.71 ± 3.50 SD 13.66 ± 2.17 SD 20.00 0.102
Chloride (mmol/l) 18.24 ± 3.33 SD 34.75 ± 2.07 SD 80.00 <0.0001
Protein (g/l) 38.39 ± 22.63 SD 25.00 ± 6.36 SD 0.00 0.08
Fat (g/l) 6.53 ± 2.93 SD 3.5 ± 0.93 SD 0.00 0.026
Crude fiber (g/l) 6.49 ± 2.91 SD 4.10 ± 1.59 SD 0.00 0.017
Ash (g/l) 9.73 ± 2.53 SD 7.56 ± 1.81 SD 5.69 0.016
pH 4.33 ± 0.48 SD 6.56 ± 0.05 SD 7.00 0.0006
Specific gravity 1.04 ± 0.02 SD 1.01 ± 0.01 SD - 0.016
Calculated energy (cal/l) 492 ± 98 SD 333 ± 76 SD 80.00 0.0002
Biochemical Assessment of Home Made Fluids 87
Table 4 presents the comparison of the
effects of homemade fluids and ORS, on the
stool output and the general condition of the
children. Homemade fluids, in general, reduced
the stool output in 68.1%, increased it
in 18.6%, and showed no effect in 13.3% of
the children. HF improved the general condition
in 80% of the children. In comparison,
ORS reduced the stool output in 37.5%,
increased it in 42.9%, and had no effect in
21.4% of the children. The general condition
improved in 78.6% of the children who
received the standard ORS.
The chemical combination and some
characteristics of selected HF with that of
ORS are presented in Table 5. The mean
total soluble carbohydrate of sorghum-based
solution was 80.74% +19.76 g/l and was
50.25 +12.67 g/l for rice water, whereas
ORS contained 20g/l in the form of glucose.
The mean sodium (NaP
+
P) was 37.37 +8.13
mmol/l, 51.74 +4.50 mmol/l, and 90 mmol/l
for nasha, rice water and ORS, respectively.
The mean potassium level was 11.71 +3.50
mmol/l, 13.66 +2.17 mmol/l, and 20 mmol/l
for nasha, rice water and ORS, respectively.
The chloride levels for these solutions were
18.24 +3.33 mmol/l, 34.75 +2.07 mmol/l,
and 80 mmol/l respectively.
The mean protein level was 38.39 +22.63
g/l for nasha, and 25.00 +6.36 g/l for rice
water, while their mean fat was 6.53 + 2.93
g/l and 3.51 +0.93 g/l respectively. Crude
fiber was 6.49 +2.91 g/l and 4.10 +1.59 g/l
respectively. The mean ash level was 9.73
+2.53 g/l in nasha, 7.56 +1.81 g/l in rice
water and 5.69 g/l in the standard ORS. The
mean energy value of nasha was 492 +98
cal/l and 333 +76 cal/l in rice, whereas it
was 80 cal/l in the standard ORS. The mean
pH of nasha was 4.33 +0.48, 6.56 +0.05 in
rice water and 7.00 in the standard ORS.
DISCUSSION
The majority of women in this study
preferred homemade fluids to ORS. All the
women (100%) accepted the homemade
fluids as compared to 57% for ORS. This
could be due to the greater palatability of
HFs and that they are prepared from staple
foods traditionally used in weaning. The
homemade fluids reduced the stool output in
68.1% of the children compared to only
37.5% who used the ORS. This was the case
in other communities where mothers' dissatisfaction
with ORS was evident.P
6
P The
effects of HFs on the stool output could be
due to the starches (the polymeric forms of
glucose) in these fluids which enhance
water absorption and reduce the stool
volume.P
16,17
P The low acceptability of the
ORS and its ineffectiveness in reducing
stool output results in persistent desire to
use antidiarheal drugs and discontinue
rehydration. This sometimes necessitates
hospital admission for proper rehydration.P
15
The soluble carbohydrates, electrolyte
contents and pH of sorghum-based solution
and rice water which are comparable to that
of ORS, were recommended as safe,
efficient and reliable for rehydration during
acute diarrhea.P
7
P The pH of sorghum-based
solution is low as a result of cereal fermentation.
It has been reported that it has some
anti-microbial effects but is without acidotic
ill effects during diarrhea.P
18
P The prevalence
of diarrhea was also reduced among
children who used lactic acid fermented
cereal gruel in Tanzania.P
19
P The pH of rice
water is close to that of standard ORS.
The addition of sucrose sugar to gruel,
inhibits the build up of osmotic pressure,
increases the salt and water absorption and
reduces the stool volume.P
16
P Proteins in
‘nasha’ and rice water hydrolyzed to amino
acids and di-peptides enhanced the absorption
of sodium and water. The moisture
contents of these fluids were similar to that
of human and cow's milk.
Sodium chloride concentration in ‘nasha’
and rice water was low, both being around
half that of ORS. This could be modified,
Journal of Family & Community Medicine 88 Vol.8 No.3 – December 2001
with the addition of salt to compensate for
the sodium loss during diarrhea. Potassium
concentration of the two fluids was more
than half of the standard ORS. To simulate
the levels in ORS, 52.63 mmol (1.21 g) of
sodium and 61.76 mmol (2.2 g) of chloride
should be added to sorghum-based gruel,
and it is recommended that 3 – 3.5g of table
salt be added to one liter of ‘nasha’.
Similarly, the addition of 2.3 – 2.6g of NaCl
to one liter of rice water will adjust the
concentration of both Na+ and Cl- to one
similar to that of ORS.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Apart from supplying the child with water,
electrolyte and energy, homemade fluids
also have the advantage of providing small
amounts of other nutrients such as minerals
and vitamins. Hence, the National Diarrhoea
Control Programme has developed a strategy
to promote the use of homemade fluids
to prevent dehydration. The fluids in the
present study have considerable amounts of
electrolytes, are accepted by the children
and their mothers, and are readily available
and easily prepared. As such, they can be
successfully used after the recommended
adjustment, both for rehydrating children
with some degree of dehydration after episodes
of acute watery diarrhea, and also for
the prevention of dehydration. These homemade
fluids should be considered feasible
alternatives to ORS where it is not readily
available.
REFERENCES
1. Synder JD, Merson MH. The magnitude of the
global problem of acute diarrhoeal disease. A
review of active surveillance data. Bull WHO
1982; 60:605-13.
2. Grant JP. The state of the world children.
UNICEF (Switzerland): Oxford Univ Press;1988.
3. WHO Diarrhoeal Disease Control Programme. A
manual for treatment of acute diarrhea for use by
physicians and other senior health workers.
HO/CDD/8.2 (Geneva): WHO Rev; 1984.
4. National Diarrhea Disease Control Programme,
Sudan. Household survey. Sudan: Ministry of
Health; 1996.
5. Levine MM, Edelman R. Acute diarrhoeal
infections in infants-1-Epidemiology treatment
and prospects for immunoprophylaxis. Hosp
Pract 1979; 14:89-150.
6. Hirschorn N. The treatment of acute diarrhoea in
children, on historical and physiological perspective.
Am J Clin Nutr 1980; 33:637-63.
7. WHO/UNICEF. The magnitude of diarrhoea and
the use of oral rehydration therapy, 2nd ed.
Geneva: WHO; 1985.
8. Mahalanabis D, Choudhuri AB, Bagehi NG, et al.
Oral fluid therapy of cholera among Bangladesh
refugees. John Hopkins Med J 1973; 132:191-
205, cited by Synder JD, et al. Home base therapy
for diarrhoea. J Pediatr Gastroenterol and Nutr
1990; 4:438-47.
9. Listernik R, Ziesel E, David AT. Outpatient oral
rehydration in the United States. Am J Dis Child
1985; 140:211-5.
10. WHO Diarrhoeal Disease Control Programme. 5th
Programme Report 1984-1985. WHO/CDD.
Geneva: WHO; 1986.
11. Sack DA, Chowdhurg A, Eusof A, et al. Oral
hydration in rotavirus diarrhoea, a double-blind
comparison of sucrose with glucose electrolyte
solution. Lancet 1978; 2:280-3.
12. Who Diarrhoeal Disease Control Programme. 6th
Programme report, 1986-1987. WHO/CDD.
Geneva: WHO; 1988.
13. Patra FC, Mahalnabis D, Jalon KN. Stimulation
of sodium and water. Absorption by sucrose in
the rat small intestine. Acta Paediatr Scand 1982;
71:103-7.
14. Association of Official Analytical Chemists
(AOAC). Official methods of analysis. 14th ed.
Arlington: USA; 1990.
15. Synder JD, Molla AM, Cash RA. Home based
therapy for diarrhoea. J Pediatr Gastroenterol and
Nutr 1990; 4:438-47.
16. Molla AM, Ahmed SM, Khatium M, Greenough
WB. Rice-based oral rehydration solution decreases
the volume in acute diarrhoea. Bull WHO
1985; 63:751-6.
17. Lepage P, Hitiman DG, Goethen CV, Ntahorutaba
MN, Sengumuremyi F. Food based oral
rehydration salt solution for acute childhood
diarrhoea. Lancet 1989; II:898-9.
18. Mensah PPA, Tomkins AM, Drasar BS, Harison
TJ. Effect of fermentation of Ghanaian maize
dough on the survival and proliferation of four
strains of Shigella flexneri. Trans Roy Soc Trop
Hyg 1988; 82:635-6.
19. Lorri W, Svanberg U. Lower prevalence of
diarrhoea in young children fed lactic acid fermented
cereal grules. Food and Nutr Bull 1994;
15(2):57-63.
 

published in Journal of Family & Community Medicine

  • Job satisfaction for Physicians and Auxiliary Medical Staff working in Public Health Institutions (A case study: Managil Teaching Hospital; Gezira State, Sudan)

1,2Malik El Naeem Mohamed and 3 Haydar Babikir

1,2Faculty of Economics and Rural Development, University of Gezira, Sudan.

3Faculty of Medicine, University of Gezira, Sudan.

ABSTRACT
This research aims to assess some of the aspects and factors that underlie the lack of job satisfaction (JS) to propose solutions of problems and constraints faced by public institutions. A descriptive and analytical method was used. A structured questionnaire was the research tool. SPSS program was used for the data analysis. There was a positive and statistically significant correlation between wages, incentive system, management and JS. There was a negative relationship between the environment, training and JS. About (64.3%) of the respondents were dissatisfied with their jobs, (28.3%) were dissatisfied with career advancement system, and (61.3%) stated that the lack of JS does not affect their relation with patients. Focus on wages and incentives system and to achieve the principle of justice in bonuses is needed to have a JS. The institution's objectives and structure must be explained to employees, and to create objective control measures to prevent the politicization of government job and on the subject of appointments and promotions.
Keywords: job satisfaction, doctors, medical assistance staff, wages, promotion, Sudan.
INTRODUCTION
Job satisfaction (JS) is the degree to which employees feel personally fulfilled and content in their job roles. It is considered an important administrative topic in private and government organizations. It is linked to the issues of performance, productivity, and organizational loyalty. JS impact cannot be concluded from short term researches. The low wages, incentives and the lack of modern equipment and the impact of poor working environment and poor training of administrative complexity, all these lead to the lack of job satfication. Workplace environments greatly influence employee satisfaction, which in turn directly affects employee turnover rates. JS can be understood in terms of its relationships with other key factors, such as general well-being, stress at work, control at work, home-work interface, and working conditions.
Managil Teaching Hospital provides educational, medical and health services for large groups of population in Managil locality, Gezira State, central Sudan. The hospital social entity includes doctors and auxiliary medical staff, as well as employees of non-medical staff. It has been observed that the doctors and other cadres have recently left their jobs. A problem that creates a brain drain, which opens the way to study this phenomenon. The research question was: Are the reasons for this brain drain in public institutions related to a lack of job satisfaction, or for other reasons? The study aims to assess some of the aspects and factors that
Corresponding author.E-mail: elfadni45@gmail.com or malikem@uofg.edu.sd.
Journal of Medical and Biological Science Research
Vol. 1 (7), pp. xxx-xxxx, September, 2015
ISSN: 2449-1810
Research Paper
http://pearlresearchjournals.org/journals/jmbsr/index.html
underlie the lack of job satisfaction (JS) and job stability to propose solutions of problems and constraints faced by public institutions.
Job satisfaction most widely used definition is that of Locke "a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of satisfaction measures vary in the extent to which they measure feelings about the job (affective job satisfaction), or cognitions about the job (cognitive job satisfaction)". JS is assessed at both the global level, or at the facet level that is whether or not the individual is satisfied with different aspects of the job, Spector (1997) lists 14 common facets: (Appreciation, Communication, Coworkers, Fringe benefits, Job conditions, Nature of the work, Organization, Personal growth, Policies and procedures, Promotion opportunities, Recognition, Security, and Supervision). JS includes multidimensional psychological responses to an individual's job, and that, these personal responses have cognitive (evaluative), affective (or emotional), and behavioral components (Hulin and Judge, 2003).
A study analyzing factors affecting JS of the Employees in Public and Private Sector in India concluded that employees in India tend to love their job if they get what they believe is an important attribute of a good job. Most of the employees in Indian industry are not satisfied with their job except for a few, like male in commerce sector and female in education sector. Total JS level of males is found to be higher than that of women and that in manufacturing sector is found to be very low (Kumari et al., 2014).
Job characteristics which include (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) impact job outcomes, including job satisfaction (Hackman and Oldham 1976). Job characteristics impact critical psychological states and in turn influencing work outcomes (JS, absenteeism, work motivation, and performance).
One specific area of investigation is the study of differing levels of reported job satisfaction by gender. Practically all studies (Sloane and Williams, 2000; Sousa-Poza and Sousa-Poza, 2003; Long, 2005) have shown that females possess higher levels of job satisfaction compared to males, a puzzling outcome when one considers the existence of gender wage differentials in favor of males, as well as occupational segregation by gender, with women occupying jobs with „lower‟ prestige. There exist a number of theories as to why females possess higher levels of job satisfaction. These include the role of expectations, a possible difference in work „values‟ and female selection into employment (Bender and Heywood, 2006).
Promotions are also an important aspect of a worker‟s career and life, affecting other facets of the work experience. They constitute an important aspect of workers‟ labor mobility, most often carrying substantial wage increases (Kosteas, 2009; Blau and DeVaro, 2007)
and can have a significant impact on other job characteristics such as responsibilities and subsequent job attachment. Promotions also serve to place individuals into different jobs, where their skills can be used to greater effect. However, not all promotions carry an increase in supervisory responsibilities or significant changes in tasks.
A work environment is made up of a range of factors, including company culture, management styles, hierarchies and human resources policies. Low levels of job satisfaction and high rates of burnout and attrition are common among behavioral health providers serving challenging patient populations (Bingham et al., 2002). This is especially true in rural areas where behavioral health workers appear to be at higher risk of burnout and job attrition. Massad, 2005 and DeStefano et al.(2005) found that 90% of rural behavioral health workers in Arizona had been with a health provider agency for 7 years or less, with 73% in their first three years. Osborn (2004) suggests this high rate of burnout and attrition may be due to the fact that behavioral health providers are overwhelmed with numerous demands on their time, talents, and resources.
Bai et al. (2006) reported a consistent relationship between job satisfaction and increasing wage for food service employees. Lam et al. (2001) investigated employees‟ job satisfaction in Hong Kong Hotels and their research results specifically showed that wages is the most important category contributing to job satisfaction.
METHODOLOGY
Researchers follow the descriptive analytical method. The sample was taken from Managil Teaching Hospital purposefully chosen because it represents one of the largest hospitals outside the state capital, and its services covers a large and densely populated area who are in die needs for this medical services. The sample consists of doctors and auxiliary medical staff assistance.
A preliminary visit to determine all the themes to be discussed such as to what extent the research sample is familiar with the importance of training, and impact of that training on raising up the work and study whether administration authority is basically interested in establishment of the training courses and their number. Whether new technology has been introduced in laboratory tests, as well as the introduction of modern surgery such as laparoscopic surgery.
Structured pre-coded questionnaire was designed as a tool to collect information. It includes information about wages and incentives, the hospital environment, the availability of a new technology for training and management. The data were analyzed by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program and the
 

published in Pearl Research Journals

  • معوقات استخدام تقنية التعليم الالكتروني في برامج تعليم الكبار بكلية التربية – حنتوب جامعة الجزيرة

الملخص

 

هدفت الدراسة إلى التعرف على معوقات استخدام تقنية التعليم الإلكتروني في برامج تعليم الكبار، ومعرفة درجة اختلاف وجهات نظر أفراد العينة في ضوء عدد من المتغيرات، إتبعت المنهج الوصفى التحليلي القائم على الدراسة الميدانية. تكون ّ مجتمع الدراسة من طلاب اللغة العربية الناطقين بغيرها والبالغ عددهم (66) طالباً ولتحقيق هذا الغرض أعدت استبانة مكونة من (17) عبارة وتم تطبيقها بعد التحقق من صدقها وثباتها على عينة مكونة من (43) طالباً ، وبعد جمع البيانات تم تحليلها عن طريق برنامج الحزم الاحصائية للعلوم الاجتماعية (SPSS) وتوصلت الدراسة إلى مجموعة من النتائج أهمها وجود معوقات تحول دون استخدام تقنية التعليم الإلكتروني في برامج تعليم الكبار بكلية التربية – حنتوب  جامعة الجزيرة تتمثل في : عدم توافر التدريب المناسب للأساتذة فى مجال استخدام تقنية التعليم الإلكتروني ، وكذلك اعتقادهم أن استخدام هذه التقنية امراً ثانوياً، ثم عدم وجود فروق ذات دلالة احصائية بين آراء افراد العينة حول استخدام تقنية التعليم الإلكتروني ترجع لمتغير المستوى الدراسي، التخصص، وجود فروق ذات دلالة احصائية بين آراء أفراد العينة حول استخدام تقنية التعليم الإلكتروني ترجع لمتغير العمر لصالح (20- 29) سنة وعلى ضوء النتائج السابقة أوصى الباحثان ببعض التوصيات ، منها إجراء مزيد من الدراسات حول بعض حلول استخدام تقنية التعليم الإلكتروني لمشكلات تعليم الكبار.

published in مجلة جامعة عين شمس

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