- - يوسف عثمان حسين محمد اسد
- published on 1/1/2007
- Susceptibility of the African bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) to endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, carbosulfan and fenpropathrin using different bioassay methods
Susceptibility of the 4th instar larvae of the African bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner), to four insecticides [chlorpyrifos (Dursban®), carbosulfan (Marshal®), endosulfan (Endosulfan®) and fenpropathrin (Danitol®)] from organophosphate, carbamate, cyclodiene and pyrethroid chemical groups was carried out under the laboratory conditions in ARTC, Gezira, Sudan. Three methods were applied (surface treatment, dipping of larvae and dipping of larval food (okra seeds)) in different concentrations from each chemical. LC50 and LC90 were calculated using probit analysis. Results obtained showed that Dursban® (Chlorpyrifos) was the most effective in controlling ABW. Marshal® (Carbosulfan) and Endosulfan® (Endosulfan) exerted medium effecacy. Danitol® (Pyrethroid group) was the least effective in controlling ABW, compared to the other chemicals used.
Danitol® presented heterogeneity towards the tested insect population, as it recorded the lowest LC50 and maximum LC90 in surface and larval dipping treatments at 24 and 48 hours, compared to other chemicals used. However, Dursban® exerted high levels of homogeneity towards the tested insects, as it recorded the lowest LC90 and a narrow range between the LC50 and LC90 in almost every treatment. Marshal® and Endosulfan® showed medium resistance levels, falling between Dursban® and Danitol®, but Marshal® was more effective than Endosulfan® in the case of controlling the ABW by larval dipping or food treatments.
All insecticides used exerted a contact rather than an oral effect. However, surface treatment proved to be the most effective method in controlling the ABW, followed by larval dipping and then food dipping.
- - يوسف عثمان حسين محمد اسد
- published on 4/1/2008
- Susceptibility of the Bagworm Auchmophila kordofensis Rebel (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) to the three different insecticides groups Spionsad, Chlorpyrifos and Cypermethrin
The insect pest (ِAuchmophila kordofensis) (Lepidoptera:Psychidae), locally known as umcigara is widely spread in Kordofan States, Sudan. The objective of the study was to investigate the susceptibility, mortality rates (LD50 and LD90), and the homogeneity/heterogeneity of Auchmophila kordofensis (Rebel) when treated with one of three selected insecticides. The pest, fourth larval instar (L4), was obtained from Kordofan State (ElObeid region), and collected from Acacia Spp (A. nubica, A. tortilis, A. nilotica, A. Seyal) and Prosopis julifora trees. The study was conducted in the Biology Laboratory, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira. Spinosad (Tracer® 240 SC), chlorpyrifos (Drusban® 48% EC) and cypermethrin (Devicyprin® 25%EC) were tested (bioassayed) at seven different concentration, topically (thoracic segments) and by the dipping method. Results were taken after 24 hours, viz. mortality percentages, LD50, LD90 and log-dose probability lines slopes (Ld-p lines) for each insecticide and route of administration. The results obtained showed that dipping method for spinosad showed a LD50 value of 8.87+1.38ppm and a LD90 value of 48.73+8.5ppm; and slope = 1.71 while the topical method resulted in a LD50 value of 17.37+2.97ppm and a LD90 34.67+1.00ppm and slope = 4.4 Chlorpyrifos displayed an LD50 value of 7.38+0.85ppm and a LD90 value of 25.57+0.55ppm for dipping method; and slope = 2.32, whereas, those for the topical were LD50 15.13+3.62ppm and LD90 28.84+0.39ppm, respectively and slope = 4.53 The dipping and topical methods for cypermethrin showed LD50 values of 7.04+1.25ppm, 15.45+2.68ppm, and LD90 values of 34.50+4.88ppm and 28.18+1.66ppm; Slope = 1.85 and 5.02 respectively. The study showed that cypermethrin has an excellent performance on A. kordofensis, followed by chlorpyrifos and spinosad, taking into consideration that the last chemical is environmentally friendly and a safe product. Recommendations: Further elaborate and detailed field and laboratory investigations about this pest are urgently needed for more understanding, (i.e. biological, ecological, physiological, biochemical and behavioural aspects). Such information would help in preparation and implementation of effective control strategies.
- - يوسف عثمان حسين محمد اسد
- published on 2/1/2016
- Resistance against Glyphosate and 2-4-D in the Indigenous Strain of A. Tumefaciens “SDB0012” And Its’ Association with Oxidase Inhibition
This study was conducted at University of Gezira, Sudan; The National Institute for Promotion of Horticultural Exports and Faculty of Engineering and Technology in 2008-09. It aimed at examining resistance of the indigenous strain of A. tumefaciens “SDB0012” to application of herbicides and role of oxidase in such resistance. Pendimethalin, Glyphosate and 2-4-D were used at dilution rates of 1:200 and 1:1 of herbicide: distilled water. Only Glyphosate and 2-4-D were further investigated at dilution rates of 2:1 and 3:1. Cyanide was used as an oxidase inhibitor at dilution rates of 0.02, 0.2, 0.5 and 2.0 mg/l. It was used to inhibit oxidase activity in the bacterial suspension and on potato discs treated with the bacterium only and with herbicides. Results concluded that the bacterium “SDB0012” was sensitive to Pendimethalin at low concentrations of 1:200 and 1:1. Further investigations concluded that the bacterium resisted Glyphosate better than 2-4-D at dilution rates of 2:1 and 3:1 and that resistance to both herbicides was highly stable. Results also indicated that resistance to Glyphosate and 2-4-D was not associated and independent. Resistance to both herbicides was found positively affected by time of incubation. Results also showed that the intensity of purple color, as an indicator for oxidase, reduced as the concentration of cyanide increased from 0.02 to 2.0 mg/l. This result indicated that oxidase had no effect on resistance of the bacterium against Glyphosate and 2-4-D. Therefore, it was suggested that this resistance might be due to effects of other independent gene(s).
- - يوسف عثمان حسين محمد اسد
- published on 2/26/2018
- “Cadmium Levels in the Urine of Males and Females from Different Age-groups in an Agricultural Village and Sugar-Producing Town in the Gezira State, Central Sudan
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most serious environmental poisons all over the world. Exposure to Cd results in health hazards. This
study aimed to determine the levels of Cd in urine among adult males, females and children of both sexes ≤ 5 yr-old, in two Gezira
State (Sudan) villages, viz. Rigwa (Um Al Goura Locality) and Wadelsayed (Eastern Gezira Locality). The selected age groups were
15 - 20, 25 - 35, 40 - 50 and 55 - 65 year old. Urine samples collected from these groups were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
(AAS). A completely randomized design was adopted. Results revealed presence of Cd in urine with no exception. Cd
levels in urine of females in Rigwa were 0.289, 0.113, 0.203, 0.283 and 0.199 mg/L for ≤ 5, 15 - 20, 25 - 35, 40 - 50 and 55 - 65 yr-old,
respectively. The levels in males were 0.087, 0.069, 0.288, 0.274 and 0.288 mg/L, respectively, for the same age groups. Regarding
Wadelsayed females, the levels were 0.014, 0.020, 0.015, 0.022 and 0.040 mg/L, respectively, following the same order as above. The
means for males were 0.122, 0.129, 0.051, 0.089 and 0.099 mg/L for ≤ 5, 15 - 20, 25 - 35, 40 - 50 and 55 - 65 yr. old, respectively. The
females level in Rigwa were higher than those of the males in the age groups < 5, 15 - 20 and 40 - 50 yr-old, whereas in Wadelsayed
the levels in men were, in many cases, by far higher than those of the females. Also, the levels in Rigwa for both sexes were higher
than those in Wadelsayed. The females < 5 in Rigwa shoed the heist concentration of Cd (0.289 vs. 0.087 mg/L), whereas those of
Wadelsayed were 0.014 vs. 0.122 mg/Lm following the same order.
published in EC PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
- - عمر السيد الطيب العباس
- published on 3/29/2018
- قواعد وضع المصطلح المترجم للغة العربية
مستخلص البحث :
يقول المستشرق الفرنسي ماسينون :( إن اللغة العربية كانت المنطلق الصحيح للمصطلح العلمي حين انبثق أول ما انبثق ليشع على العالم 000) 0
تمتاز اللغة العربية دون غيرها من لغات العالم بصفاتٍ لغوية تجعلها الأجدر بنقل المعارف دون سائر اللغات 0 وذلك لما تكتنفه من صفات ، كالنحت و الاشتقاق ، تلك الصفات التي تجعل أمر توليد الألفاظ عند النقل من لغة أخرى بلفظ رشيق يطابق المعنى المراد ، وهذا لا مثيل لـه في اللغات الأخرى التي تضطر لوضع عدد ضخم من المفردات المعقدة التي لا رابط لها ، لذلك تمتاز اللغة العربية بأنها لغة الإعراب ، و الإعراب لغةً يعني الإفصاح و الإيضاح 0
تؤصل هذه الورقة لقضية نقل المصطلح إلى اللغة العربية منذ القرن الأول الهجري لعهد يزيد بن معاوية الذي شجع المترجمين على نقل المصطلحات العلمية من طب و كيمياء و فلك انتهاء بعهد المامون الذي بلغ ذروة ترجمة المصطلح العلمي 0
تناولت الورقة الصفات التي ينبغي توفرها في واضع المصطلح ، وكذلك تناولت محاور عملية تعريب المصطلح في منظومة اللغة العربية من تعريب باللفظ و الترجمة أو بالاقتباس اللفظي مشفوعةً بالأمثلة المناسبة
كذلك تناولت الورقة قواعد وضع المصطلحات باللغة العربية من خلال خاصية اللغة العربية ، ومن ثم استعراض جهود بعض المجامع اللغوية العربية في الوطن العربي في وضع المصطلحات و نقل الأصوات إلى اللغة العربية 0
نسأل الله التوفيق فيما نهضنا له و أن يجعل أعمالنا في خدمة اللغة العربية خالصة لوجهه الكريم 0 وآخر دعوانا أن الحمد لله رب العالمين