النشر العلمي

  • Effect of greenhouse size on the gradient of temperature, relative humidity and plant growth of summer tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) in central of Sudan.

Evaporative cooling devices are used extensively in greenhouses in tropical and subtropical countries to reduce excessive ambient temperatures for cultivating high value crops. Accordingly, inlet air temperature and relative humidity from the greenhouse evaporative cooler is an essential step in determining greenhouse design.

The experiment was conducted at Geneid Sugar Factory Farm, Sudan (latitude  14º 15‘ N, longitude 33º  38‘ E ).The treatments of this experiment were four different greenhouses: one, two, three and four-spans, all have same length of 34 m and their size 34X9, 34X18, 34X27 and 34X36m2 respectively arranged in RCBD in four replications and each one  equipped with evaporative coolers with different dimensions according to its size and with 2, 4, 6 and 8 fans per greenhouse, respectively. to study the gradient of temperature, relative humidity across the greenhouses and tomato growth in the summer season.

 

The results indicated that the evaporative cooling system reduced the internal air temperature (ºC) and increased relative humidity (%) in all greenhouses size. The lowest mean air temperature (24.5ºC) and highest relative humidity (54.7%) obtained by the four-spans greenhouse.  The reduction of air temperature was lower by 19% and 40% than that in one span greenhouse and ambient air temperature respectively. Moreover, the relative humidity increased by 17% and 54% than them. Also, it recorded the highest plants (3.46 m), greater number of fruits / plant (6.6), heavier weight of fruits / plant (95 g/plant) and higher fruits yield /plant (0.54 kg/plant) than one span green house by  42%, 23% and 56% respectively  The main drawbacks of the pad and fan system were the horizontal temperature gradients, with a maximum temperature difference between the pads and region close to the fans of up to 5ºC.

 

published in Journal of Agricultural Research, Kafrelsheikh University. Vol. (39) No.2, Egypt.

  • Seroepidemiological Survey of infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Humans and Camels from Butana area - Sudan

This study is a cross sectional serosurvey encompassing a comprehensive assessment of different cohorts with different presumed risk of exposure to MERS-CoV, including Camels and camel workers in different setting (camel farm, market, and slaughterhouse) and workers in non-animal related occupations.

In addition, the design includes a nested case-control study of specific exposures within each cohort. The intent of the study is to determine the types of exposures that may lead to infection and to link human infections with evidence of infection in animals to which they are exposed. This information will guide efforts for prevention of sporadic transmission of the MERS-CoV virus. 

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published in MERS-CoV -Technical Meeting ,WHO Headquarters, Geneva

  • Outcomes of Combined Topical Treatment of Cystoid Macular Edema Using Corticosteroids and Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Eye Drops.

published in XXXV CONGRESS OF THE ESCES - LISBON2017

  • Harnessing Nile Water for Food Security in the Eastern Nile Basin: Challenges and Options

Food insecurity is a major challenge in the Eastern Nile Basin (ENB) countries. The ENB countries are endowed with vast resources (land, water and climate) suitable for agriculture, livestock production, and forestry and fisheries development, among others. However, agriculture is characterized by relatively low productivity. FAO 2010 estimated that there were some 680 million hungry people in the world, more than 250 million of whom in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently there is real famine in some of the ENB countries (e.g South Sudan) because of war and less food production.  Food imports is increasing, while agricultural productivity is stable and or decreasing despite huge potential. There is potentiality - given the huge amount of water – for the ENB region to feed its population and maybe the world. UN, MDG progress reports on to halve the number of hunger people by the year 2015 showed big gap in most of the Nile Basin countries. The main problem of food insecurity in the region is not scarce resources but poor policies, poor strategic planning, mismanagement, traditional practices (absence of technology), crop failure, droughts and civil war. Other reasons complicated the situation is the lack of coordination and cooperation between ENB countries.

Methodology and approach

This paper discusses the issue of harnessing water in the Eastern Nile Basin (Ethiopia, Sudan, South Sudan and Egypt) for food security. The paper reviewed the availability and distribution of water resources in the ENB.  The ENB community food need was estimated. The available water was tested against the community needs for food. Current and future challenges of food insecurity were discussed and classified to countries and regional challenges. Options of food security improvement were discussed versus existing challenges. Results are summarized in tables, graphs and figures. Ways and means to face food insecurity challenges were reported and prioritized. 

Key findings

The available water in the region is more than enough to feed the ENB community and beyond. The total renewable water resource in the ENB is about 153.8 BCM. This is huge water to feed about 215 million people (total estimated population). It has been found that the current and future regional food needs can be covered by small percentage from the available Nile water. The main regional challenges of food insecurity are climate change, mismanagement of water, lack of cooperation, lack of vision and strategic planning. Other challenges are various depending on each country, but low productivity and civil war constitutes the main challenge to achieve food security.

Conclusions and recommendation

Food security issue should be at the top of the region agenda. Some food insecurity challenges are country specific (eg. civil war in Sudan and South Sudan, low productivity in Sudan and Ethiopia) and climate change is regional challenge. 

published in 5TH Nile Basen Forum

  • Water quality assessment

Although poor water quality recognized as one of the greatest threats to human health, it has been little investigated in Sudan. We categorize water sources to safe, probably safe, probably unsafe an unsafe sources using the newly introduced method of Compartmental Bag Test (CBT) for E. coli, which is usually transmitted through consumption of contaminated water and is a major health risk. CBT is simple, portable, self-contained and it can be done in a free-lab environment.  A total of 185 samples were collected from different water sources in Wad Medani, Sudan, including river, water treatment plant, borehole or tube well,  hand pump, public water tap, public water pots, household pot, public water cooler, public elevated water tank, household elevated water tank and  plastic water container. It was found that 74 % of investigated water sources either safe or possibly safe while the remaining 26% were either unsafe or probably unsafe water. Risk varied greatly with the nature of the source.  Those most likely to be contaminated were close to industrial points and factories or open sources exposed to pollution. Frequent and routine qualitative analysis is recommended to improve human health and hence the country’s development.

published in water and sanitation

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