- - يوسف عثمان حسين محمد اسد
- published on 8/19/2019
- Efficacy of ultra-low volume and thermal fogging as space spray for control of adult Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Holy Makkah (Mecca) city, KSA
Makkah (western Saudi Arabia) is one of the endemic areas of dengue fever. The efficacy of outdoor Ultra-low Volume ( UL) with cyfluthrin 5% EW, and indoor thermal fogging (TF) with deltamethrin 2% EW as space spraying (SS), at the recommended and higher dose for controlling of Aedes aegypti were evaluated in Alsharayie area of the city, following WHO standard protocols. Bioassay tests for females were carried out for sugar- fed adults upon emergence (1-5) days. The efficacy of UL at different distances from the spray path (5, 15, 25, 40 and 50 m), and TF at 5 locations inside the house (center, corner, dark, window and hall) was also investigated. The data showed that the SS efficacy was significantly affected by the dose applied of pyrethroid. Tested distances from the spray path did not affect UL efficacy. Similarly, the locations of the cages indoor showed no difference on the performance of TF. However, it was observed that the TF efficiency was affected by the volume/size of the sprayed area, i.e. ≤20 m2 inside the rooms (73.8 to 96.6 %), compared with ≥30 m2 hall (57.7 to 79.7%). Regarding KdT, adults were rapidly knocked-down with UL (cyfluthrin) 29 min, when compared to TF (deltamethrin) 40 min. The results revealed that the LC50 and LC90 values for cyfluthrin against Ae. aegypti were 0.026 mg/L and 0.05 mg/L, respectively. While the respective values for deltamethrin were 0.008 mg/L and 0.015 mg/L. It can be concluded that the two pyrethroids are not effective at currently recommended doses SS against adult. Doses 300mg/L of cyfluthrin, and 160mg/L of deltamethrin proved to be more effective and recommended for the control of this vector.
- - هالة الطاهر محمد علوب
- published on 9/3/2019
- COMPOSITION, ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF AQUATIC WEEDS IN MINOR AND ABUXX CANALS, RAHAD SCHEME, SUDAN
- - محمد يوسف محمد ابوالقاسم
- published on 9/24/2019
- Republic of Tunisa
Kafaci livestock project (poultry) basically targeted rural households. Five poultry producers (women) were selected from three villages (Atara, Abuhraz, Hantoob) in the Gezira-State- Sudan (about 180 Km. South Khartoum. A financial contract was a signed between the farmers and project via the project PI. Equipment , such as, feeders, drinkers and egg-nests were distributed to the farmers freely. A training workshop for five days was carried out for the farmers, and each farmer received the manual of small-scale poultry producer. During the Period 2017 -2018 two batches of laying chickens (Whit, Hi-sex) were distributed to the five selected farmers (women) . For the first batch a total of 1000 layers of 16 weeks old were used.In the second batch (2018) the flock size was increased by 40% and a total of 1400 layers of 16 weeks old were distributed to the selected farmers. For the third batch (2019) the flock size increased by 70% and a total of 1700 layers chickens of white Hi-sex wil be released to the farmers on 20th., August, 2019.Regular visits and consultation via phone calls were adopted as means to supervise the project activities. In this project all birds were vaccinated aganist, Marek, New Castle, Gumboro, Infectious Bronchitis, Fowl Pox and debeaked before their distribution to the farmers.
- - فائزة الجيلي الحسن صلاح
- published on 8/12/2019
- Effect of powder preparation of Clove, Ginger, Garad and Galangal on the infestation of Chick-pea grains caused by Cow pea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus
Chick-pea,Cicer arietinum L.(Fabaceae) is the one of the most important legume crops in the Sudan. The Cow Pea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: bruchidae ) is the major store pest of chick-pea grains. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of flower buds powder of clove, rhizomes powder of ginger, galangal, and fruits powder of garad on the level of infestation and larval damage of Cow-Pea weevil adults on Chick-pea .The experiments were carried out in the laboratory. Ninety gram of Chick-pea grains are treated by10 grams powder of the above mentioned natural products i.e. 10% concentration(w/w) plus an untreated control.. Ten cowpea weevil adults were introduced to each treatment. Five replicates were used arranged in a completely randomized design. Parameters studied were weight loss , adult mortality , grain damage and germination. Grain weight loss and adult mortality were determined weekly, grain damage and germination were assessed at the end of the experiment i.e. after three weeks .The results indicated that those natural products significantly (p<0.05) reduced the percentage of Cow- Pea weevil larval damage on Chick- Pea grains. Percentages of damage recorded were 8.40%, 19.60% , 32.00%, 33.20% and 66.00% recorded in clove, ginger, galangal, garad and the control, respectively. Percentages of grains weight loss were 1.81% , 3.31% , 4.03% , 4.35% and 5.31% recorded for clove, ginger, galangal, garad and the control, respectively. Percentages of adult mortality were 93.33% , 61.99%, 54.66%, 41.40% and 30.06% recorded in clove, ginger, galangal, garad and the control, respectively . Percentages of grain germination were 83.20%, 74.00%, 68.00%, 64,40% and 41.60% recorded in clove, ginger , galangal, garad, and the control respectively . Apparently clove powder was the most effective one, followed by ginger, galangal and garad compared to the control . It is concluded that clove powder was the most effective in reducing Cow Pea weevil larval damage on chick-pea grains, and there for could be recommended for chick-pea grains protection against cowpea weevil in grain stores . Future research should investigate the active ingredients of clove for seed dressing formulation purposes.
- Awadallah Belal Dafaallah Belal - عوض الله بلال دفع الله بلال
- published on 8/5/2019
- Phytotoxic Effects of Jimsonweed (Datua stramonium L.) Seed Aqueous Extract on Seed Germination of some Cereal Crops Using Probit Analysis
Several plants are phytotoxic in nature as they produce and release many chemical compounds into the environment. This study was carried out to investigate the phytotoxic effects of the seeds aqueous extract of Jimsonweed (Datua stramonium L.) on seed germination of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench), millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.), maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum vulgare L.) using probit analysis. Laboratory experiments were carried out at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira, Sudan in season 2014/15. Ten concentrations (4.62, 9.26, 13.87, 18.51, 23.12, 27.74, 32.36, 36.98, 41.61 and 46.28 g/l) of the seeds aqueous extract of D. stramonium were prepared from the stock solution (100 g / l). A control with sterilized-distilled water was included for comparison. Treatments were arranged in completely randomized design with four replicates. The seeds were examined for inhibition (%) in germination at three days after initial germination. Data were transformed using Abbott’s formula and subjected to probit analysis (P £ 0.5). The seeds aqueous extract of D. stramonium inhibited the seed germination of the tested cereal crops and there was direct positive relationship between concentration (g/l) and inhibition (%). Also, the seeds of wheat (LC50 = 22.6 g/l) were most sensitive to the seeds aqueous extract of Jimsonweed followed by the seeds of sorghum (LC50 = 26.5 g/l) and maize (LC50 = 27.9 g/l). However, the extract was less toxic to the seeds of millet (LC50 = 32.2 g/l). It was concluded that that the aqueous extract of Jimsonweed (D. stramonium L.) was phytotoxic to the seed germination of the tested cereal crops.